What is a diffuse axonal brain injury anoxia adalah

With the defeat of the stem plot are the following symptoms of a diffuse axonal brain injury:

• a fixed gaze upward;

• the weakening or absence of reflex in response to irritation of the eye shell;

• oppression oculocephalic reflex, etc.

The condition is almost always accompanied by meningeal syndrome (inelasticity of the muscles of the neck, hypersensitivity to stimuli, paresis).

Pronounced autonomic disorders:

• overheating caused by accumulation of excess heat in the body;

• sweating;

• increased salivation;

• violation of respiratory function requiring connection to a ventilator.

For the clinical course of the WCT is characterized by frequent transitions from a coma to permanent or temporary vegetative.Anoxia adalah


this is evidenced by spontaneous eye opening or involuntary (in response to the stimulus). Signs of fixation or tracking gaze are lacking.

Vegetative disorders in the WCT can last a few days or months, in some cases, even years. They were gradually joined by new classes of neurological symptoms – symptoms of functional or anatomical isolation of the cerebral hemispheres and subcortical-stem structures. This leads to the emergence of a chaotic, uncontrolled oculomotor, glossopharyngeal and other phenomena.

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Within a short period of time, form and the combination of such reactions, the patient repeatedly changing.

While DAP may experience facial synkinesis (involuntary contractions of muscles, accompanying other traffic):

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• chewing;

• yawning;

• swallowing;

• smacking, etc.

The output of the paralysis neurologic deficits replace the symptoms of hair loss:

• extrapyramidal syndrome (excessive or insufficient motor activity, in this case a marked stiffness);

• violation of coordination of movements;

• bradykinesia (slowing of movements friendly);

• impoverishment of speech;

• sudden uncontrolled movement of muscle groups;

• gait characteristic of ataxia.

At all stages of the flow of the WCT are present in mental disorders. Basic is a mental confusion, hallucination, amnesia. Pronounced physical and mental exhaustion, no motivation to motor, speech and other forms of activity observed asthenia (mental weakness).

The description of the disease

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Overall, traumatic brain injury is a serious brain damage, entailing dangerous (and sometimes irreversible) consequences for the organism.

There are three degrees of severity of the defeat: easy

Minor concussion and brain injury.

Average

Moderate brain injuries.

Heavy

WCT compression.

The last type is represented in the form of large-scale destruction of axons, accompanied by cerebral hemorrhage. For clinical picture characterized the lesion at the junction of white and gray matter. Small hemorrhages are found in the corpus callosum, half unit, the upper part of the trunk.

Diffuse axonal injury of the brain – heavy, very dangerous condition, posing a threat to life. Amid the trauma are formed hematoma formed accumulation of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in the brain due to disrupted outflow.Anoxia adalah observed swelling, depressed fractures. These phenomena precede the WCT itself.

The main clinical manifestation of prolonged coma, turning eventually into a vegetative state. When the latter is absent cortical activity. It can take years to complete.

To restore the previous state of the brain is almost impossible, few people can return to normal life. If the patient survived the injury, he displayed a lifelong surveillance by a specialist and careful control of the damage. Diagnosis

Diagnosis of diffuse axonal injury of the brain based on the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury and the clinical picture. Analysis of the biomechanics of head injury suggests a variety of options and the severity of primary brain damage and to predict the development of secondary damage mechanisms.Anoxia adalah

The data computed tomography in the acute stage of the WCT are characterized by moderate or strong increase in the volume of the brain, narrowing or compression of the lateral spaces and the base of the brain. The density of the fabric often remains normal, but may be it will decrease or increase.

In white matter, corpus callosum and stem departments are often found small focal collections of blood. The dynamics of computed tomography in patients with WCT is characterized by rapid development of symptoms of the degenerative process.

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3-4 weeks after injury revealed clumps of cerebrospinal fluid in the frontal lobes and between the hemispheres, which may disappear as the normalization of mental status.Anoxia adalah

Electroencephalography when the WCT is characterized by a persistent or temporary changes in subcortical or brainstem structures. When the EEG often reveals the signs of the diencephalic syndrome.

Somatosensory evoked potentials are responses in the nervous structures under the stimulation current. When WCT relate them to the severity of the injury. SSWS recovery can take from several months to a year (and more), suggesting a regenerative process.

Characteristic reactions of neurotransmitters in the WCT – long increase in the concentration of serotonin by inhibition of excretion of dopamine and activation of adrenaline. This could be the basis for the use in complex therapy medications aimed at controlling responses of the sympathetic-adrenal system.Anoxia adalah

The results of computed tomography it is possible to assume the presence or absence of intracranial pressure. The probability of high intracranial pressure in the absence of visualization during the exploration of the third ventricle and cisterns of the brain base, or if there are signs of squashing them. In this case, it can be connected to the sensor to determine and adjust intracranial pressure.

If the CT scan shows the integrity of the outflow pathways of the cerebrospinal fluid (the third ventricle and basal cisterns), intracranial pressure, most likely is normal. The likelihood of benefit from measures aimed at its reduction, in this case, low. Informative studies can be reduced in the presence of complications.Anoxia adalah

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Treatment of diffuse axonal injury of the brain

Surgical intervention in the WCT is not required because there is no substance to be removed. The patient in need of prolonged artificial lung ventilation (moderate mode) and complex intensive care, including:

• the intake of nootropic and vasoactive drugs;

• the maintenance of metabolic processes through the probe and parentling power;

• correction of acid-base and water-electrolyte balance;

• the implementation of actions aimed at normalizing the osmotic and colloidal pressure;

• adjustment of homeostasis.

If a high probability of development of inflammatory and pulmonary complications, is assigned the administration of antibacterial agents and immunostimulants.Anoxia adalah

Allowed the early introduction of physiotherapy aimed at restoration of motor function, prevention of contractures and correction of speech disorders.

For the normalization of the central nervous system and speed up the healing process requires a long systematic administration vascular and neuroprotective agents, drugs that enhance the metabolic processes in tissues, and neurotransmitters (if there are indications). Forecasts

The patient’s condition and the outcome of the WCT depend on the extent of the primary lesion of the axons and the severity of secondary intracranial factors (swelling, disruption of metabolic processes in the brain, swelling, etc.). Plays a role and the presence of uniceramic complications.Anoxia adalah

The prognosis depends on the effectiveness of therapy aimed at eliminating the secondary mechanisms of brain damage and the development of complications. The longer and harder the coma lasts, the higher the risk of adverse outcome and lower chances of recovery.

It should be noted that there is a possibility of full or partial recovery of lost mental functions with a decrease in neurological disorders even if the patient stayed in a coma for a long time, and then a few months followed a vegetative state.

This demonstrates the reversibility of structural changes occurred as a result of diffuse axonal brain damage.