Update in pediatric imaging – advances in pediatrics anoxia refers to

Fig. 18

The usefulness of ultrasonography in pediatric abdominal pathology. ( A, B) transverse ( A) and longitudinal ( B) ultrasonographic images in an 11-year-old boy with right lower quadrant abdominal pain show a thick-walled 1.3-cm-wide tubular structure in the right lower quadrant, containing an echogenic shadowing structure ( arrows), confirmed at surgery to be an inflamed appendix, containing a calcified fecalith. The normal appendix has a diameter less than 0.6 cm. ( C, D) transverse grayscale ( C) and power doppler ( D) ultrasonographic images in a 2-year-old boy with colicky abdominal pain show the target or bull’s-eye appearance of an ileocolic intussusception.


On color doppler, there is vascular supply to the bowel, signifying viability. ( E, F) transverse grayscale ( E) and color doppler ( F) ultrasonographic images in an infant with bilious vomiting.Anoxia refers to the whirlpool appearance of the swirling mesenteric vessels is concerning for midgut volvulus. The child was immediately taken to surgery, which confirmed malrotation with midgut volvulus. ( G, H) longitudinal ( G) and transverse ( H) grayscale images in a 1-month-old girl with projectile vomiting confirm hypertrophic pyloric stenosis as the cause. In ( G), the channel length is 1.8 cm (18 mm) and wall thickness is 0.39 cm (3.9 mm). In ( H), the wall thickness is 0.41 cm (4.1 mm). The normal pyloric muscle thickness should be less than 3 mm and channel length less than 15 mm.

Fig. 26

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma in a 5-year-old girl who presented with hip pain after falling at the playground. Many children present with apparent accidents but have underlying congenital anomalies or tumors. ( A) radiograph of the right hip shows permeative destruction of the proximal right femur.Anoxia refers to bowing of the fat planes in the medial thigh suggests an associated soft tissue mass ( arrows). Radiographs offer the best chance at differential diagnosis of bone disease, because this modality is most accurate for showing biological behavior of the process. ( B, C) coronal non–fat-saturated ( B) and fat-saturated ( C) MR images show tumor replacement of the bone marrow ( asterisk) and an associated juxtacortical soft tissue mass ( arrows). Joint-to-joint imaging (not shown) did not show skip lesions. ( D) axial MR image shows fluid-fluid levels ( arrows) within the soft tissue mass. Although fluid-fluid levels are more often seen in aneurysmal bone cysts, the destructive bone process shown on radiographs is consistent with telangiectatic osteosarcoma.Anoxia refers to this finding emphasizes the need for the radiograph.

Fig. 40

The value of MR as opposed to CT in the evaluation of subdural hematomas. ( A– C) CT in a 3-month-old who presented with an acute life-threatening experience (ALTE). ( A) CT on the left does not show blood, but the MR shows some subdural blood ( arrow). ( B) lateral comparisons again show blood only on the MR ( arrow). ( C) susceptibility-weighted MR image shows blood ( black) in the left subdural space. ( D) imaging in a different infant, who presented with sepsis and clotting disorder. These axial images show multiple areas of medullary vein thrombosis. This finding emphasizes the importance of MR and its multiple sequences in defining disease. ( E– G) imaging in these 3 infants shows how MR, except in acute conditions, gives the most information.Anoxia refers to sagittal T1-weighted MR image ( E) shows mixed subdural hematoma and clear subarachnoid space ( black). Axial T2-weighted MR image ( F) shows subdural membranes ( arrow), showing the chronicity of the lesion. Axial diffusion-weighted image ( G) shows restricted diffusion ( white) secondary to abuse damage and ischemia.

Fig. 40

The value of MR as opposed to CT in the evaluation of subdural hematomas. ( A– C) CT in a 3-month-old who presented with an acute life-threatening experience (ALTE). ( A) CT on the left does not show blood, but the MR shows some subdural blood ( arrow). ( B) lateral comparisons again show blood only on the MR ( arrow). ( C) susceptibility-weighted MR image shows blood ( black) in the left subdural space. ( D) imaging in a different infant, who presented with sepsis and clotting disorder.Anoxia refers to these axial images show multiple areas of medullary vein thrombosis. This finding emphasizes the importance of MR and its multiple sequences in defining disease. ( E– G) imaging in these 3 infants shows how MR, except in acute conditions, gives the most information. Sagittal T1-weighted MR image ( E) shows mixed subdural hematoma and clear subarachnoid space ( black). Axial T2-weighted MR image ( F) shows subdural membranes ( arrow), showing the chronicity of the lesion. Axial diffusion-weighted image ( G) shows restricted diffusion ( white) secondary to abuse damage and ischemia.