Toofer….check out rogan’s recent podcast anoxemia definition

I have almost finished it. In some ways, I’m more confused than ever. That’s probably due to my simple and rattled brain. I do have a much more cynical approach to things as I’ve aged, so I find it a little disconcerting that Kahn has practiced his ways since the age of 18 (42 years). As a general rule, we tend to find stats and studies that back our thoughts when we’re so invested in something. Kresser has practiced different approaches and I do believe his curiosity drives him to find the best way of life.

I would love to hear what Glenn and 2th think if they listen.The studies Kresser cites are more detailed and complete and take into account multiple factors that drive health. Kahn is hung up on the 60 year old lipid hypothesis and even the new studies he cites only look at that one variable, fat, and dismiss all other factors.

But Kahn has decades invested in this mantra and within the first 90 minutes gets defensive and dismissive of any counter arguments. anxiety attack treatment nhs That being said I’m only about 1/3 of the way through. Good discussion for sure.

MACRONUTRIENTS — Macronutrients are the chemical compounds consumed in the largest quantities and provide bulk energy. The three primary macronutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Fiber can also be considered a macronutrient [6].

Carbohydrate — Carbohydrates should make up 45 to 65 percent of total caloric intake, as recommended by the United States Dietary Guidelines [6]. Both the quantity and type of carbohydrate (eg, whole-grain versus refined-grain) have differential effects on postprandial glucose levels and glycemic index. Several prospective studies have associated diets high in glycemic index with risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and some cancers. Glycemic index for common foods are available in the table (table 2). One important way of achieving a healthy diet is to replace carbohydrates having a high glycemic index (eg, white rice, pancakes) with a low glycemic index (eg, fruits, vegetables).

Added sugars should be limited and comprise no more than 10 percent of total calories consumed [6]. These sugars often come from sweetened beverages and almost all processed foods. If a large percentage of calories comes from added sugars, it may be difficult for patients to meet their nutritional needs within caloric limits. Naturally occurring sugars (eg, from fruit or milk) are not considered added sugars. However, fruit juice should still be limited to small daily amounts, if any, as it tends to be high in calories without the added benefit of fiber, which is found in whole fruit. (See "Dietary carbohydrates" and ‘Sweetened beverages’ below.)

Protein — Protein should make up 10 to 35 percent of total caloric intake, as recommended by the United States Dietary Guidelines [6]. anxiety attack vs panic attack reddit Individuals should be counseled to eat a variety of healthy protein-rich foods, including fish, lean meat, poultry, eggs, beans, peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds. Patients should be advised to avoid protein sources with unhealthy fats. (See "Dietary fat", section on ‘Recommendations for patients’.)

Common sources of dietary protein include whole foods (eg, meat, fish, egg, vegetables, milk) and protein powders (eg, casein, whey, soy). The source of protein has a differential effect on health (eg, red meats are associated with increased mortality, compared with white meats). (See ‘Protein-rich foods’ below.)

Fat — Fat should make up 20 to 35 percent of total caloric intake, as recommended by the United States Dietary Guidelines [6]. The type of fat consumed appears to be more important than the amount of total fat (table 3). Trans fats contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), while n-3 (and perhaps n-6) polyunsaturated fats are protective [10,11]. (See "Dietary fat", section on ‘Quality of fat’.)

Trans fatty acid consumption should be kept as low as possible. The major sources of trans fats include margarines and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats. These fats are also present in many processed and fast foods. The United States Dietary Guidelines recommend limiting dietary cholesterol and keeping consumption of saturated fat under 10 percent of calories per day [6].

There is some evidence that long-term consumption of fish oil and n-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. One to two servings of oily fish in the weekly diet is suggested for most adult patients. This is discussed in detail separately. (See "Fish oil and marine omega-3 fatty acids".)

Consumption of trans fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol each affect plasma cholesterol levels. Elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations, particularly low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), show a strong and consistent association with the incidence of CHD [12,13]. anoxic tank design However, there are limited data showing that dietary interventions to lower cholesterol intake improve patient outcomes. (See "Lipid lowering with diet or dietary supplements" and "Lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular disease".)

Fiber is the portion of plants that cannot be digested by enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber is available in a large variety of natural foods and supplements (table 4). Patients should be advised to replace refined grains (eg, white rice, white bread) with whole grains (eg, brown rice, whole-wheat bread), which have higher fiber content. (See ‘Grains’ below.)

●Cardiovascular disease – High fiber intake is associated with a 40 to 50 percent reduction in the risk of CHD and stroke compared with low fiber intake [14-19] and is associated with lower cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients who have had a myocardial infarction [20]. A pooled analysis of cohort studies found that each 10 g increase in energy-adjusted intake of fiber per day was associated with a 14 percent relative reduction in the risk for all coronary events and a 27 percent reduction in CHD death [21]. anoxic brain damage prognosis High fiber diets may in part protect against CHD by controlling cardiovascular risk factors, including lowering insulin levels, improving lipid profiles, and lowering blood pressure [22,23].

●Diabetes mellitus – Fiber consumption from grains has a protective effect against diabetes mellitus. Increased fiber intake may also be beneficial in controlling blood glucose in patients with established diabetes. (See "Nutritional considerations in type 1 diabetes mellitus" and "Nutritional considerations in type 2 diabetes mellitus" and "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus", section on ‘Dietary patterns’.)

●Cancer – Fiber intake likely lowers the risk of colorectal cancer [24]. Dietary fiber and risk of colorectal and other cancers is discussed separately. (See "Colorectal cancer: Epidemiology, risk factors, and protective factors", section on ‘Fiber’ and "Cancer prevention", section on ‘Fruits and vegetables’.)

●Mortality – Observational studies suggest that increased dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased all-cause mortality [25,26]. A 2014 meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies including over 900,000 patients found that high fiber intake was associated with decreased mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.80) with a dose-response relationship (each 10 g/day increment associated with RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.92) [27]. In the largest of the included studies, the European prospective cohort study, fiber intake was also inversely associated with mortality from circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and non-cardiovascular, noncancer inflammatory diseases [26]. The associations were stronger in smokers and heavy drinkers (>18 g alcohol/day). Fiber from vegetables and cereals had higher impact than fiber from fruit.

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018. (Accessed on June 16, 2018).

World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Stomach Cancer. 2016. Available at: (Accessed on April 25, 2016).

Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Evans CE, et al. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Br J Nutr 2014; 112:725.

Imamura F, O’Connor L, Ye Z, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. anxiety attack treatment in er BMJ 2015; 351:h3576.

Salehi-Abargouei A, Maghsoudi Z, Shirani F, Azadbakht L. Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases–incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis on observational prospective studies. Nutrition 2013; 29:611.

Schwingshackl L, Bogensberger B, Hoffmann G. Diet Quality as Assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternate Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Score, and Health Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. J Acad Nutr Diet 2018; 118:74.