The skeletal system vertebral column and thorax – alphafm documents search engine anoxia anoxica

Www.Neerimages.Com/images/vpv/ 000/000/002/2458-0550×0475.Jpg articulatory system common joint impairments/pathologies: “ swelling (edema inï‚ammation“ subluxation or dislocation (loss of alignmen“ joint replacement ( arthroplasty ) “ contractures (shortening of soft tissue) edue to burns or compression of nerves and blood vessels ( compartment syndrome ) giving ischemic contrapture “ arthritis  leading cause of disability in people above 55 osteoarthritis (degenerative joint syndrome) reumathoid and psoriatic arthritis “ both autoimmune diseases  septic arthritis “ caused by joint infection  gouty arthritis 9 members.Aol.Com/wayneheim/hipw.Jpg www.Eorthopod.Com/imagesontent images/ knee/knee_acl/knee_acl_diagnosis01.Jpg (skeletal) muscles functions: “ perform voluntary movement “ contract or relax “ act on bone to create working lever controlled motion contraction:  brain sends message down spinal cord  motor message travels on efferent nerve  muscle contracts “ stimulates stretch receptors  sensory message travels on afferent nerve  message travels on spinal cord up to the brain two types of contractions: “ isometric contraction (lenh does not change) “ isotonic contraction (joint motion, muscle contracts) 10 abnormalities of coordination choreiform movements “ involuntary, purposeless, jerky displacements of short duration of limb and face “ coordinated but performed involuntarily athetoid movements “ unstable, slow, wormlike spasticity “ exaerated reï‚ex “ hypertonia “ clonus (rapid muscle contractions) “ muscle spasms 21 disorders affecting motor control cerebral palsy “ affects 0. 2% newbotns“ abnormal tone and abnormal reï‚exes (non-progressive) “ can be: spastic; athetoid; ataxic; and mixed cerebral vascular accident (stroke) “ hemiparesis: paralysis of one side of the body “ hemiplegia: weakness of one side of the body spinal cord injury “ quadriplegia: all four limbs and trunk paralyzed “ paraplegia: only low extremities and possibly trunk traumatic brain injury “ motor involvement may vary from severe (all four extremities involved) to mild progressive conditions “ MS, muscular distrophy, parkinson!S, ALS 22 neuromuscular diseases myopathy “ generic term for amuscular disease that result in muscular weakness muscular distrophy (e duchenne!S) “ genetic, hereditary, progressive “ muscle ïbers being destroyed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, lou gehris desease) “ progressive deterioration of motor neurons “ muscles weaken; atrophy “ patients ultimately lose their ability to initiate and control all voluntary movement except of the eyes 23 neuromuscular diseases spinal muscular atrophies “ progressive degeneration of motor neurons in spinal cord “ muscles weaken; atrophy multiple sclerosis (MS) “ chronic, inï‚ammatory disease of the central nervous system “ may cause changes in sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, difïculties with coordination and speech, fatigue and pain parkinson! Disease “ degenerative disorder of central nervous system “ impairs motor skills and speech polio “ virally induced infectious disease affecting the central nervous system “ may result in tremor, rigidity, akynesia 24 abnormal spine curvatures scoliosis “ lateral bending “ may lead to compression of the spinal cord kyphosis (hunchback) “ excessive curvature with backward convexity lordosis “ anterior convexity, normally in lumbar area 3 www.Rad.Washinon.Edu/staticpix/mskbook/scoliosis.Jpg www.Nlm.Nihov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/9499.Jpg www.Nlm.Nihov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/9583.Jpg pelvis – abnormal positions pelvis affects the posture of the rest of the body abnormal pelvis positions: “ anterior/posterior pelvic tilt  resulting in sacral siing “ pelvic obliquity “ pelvic rotation 4 www.Pdh-odp.Co.Uk/images/pelvis.JPG www.Nature.Com/sc/journal/v41/n10/ fig_tab/3101507f2.Html#figure-title articulatory system type of movements: “ flexion ebending the forearm towards the arm “ extension  the opposite of ï‚exion “ abduction  movement of abody part away from the body midline “ adduction  movement of abody part towards the body midline “ rotation “ supination  rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces up “ pronation  rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces down “ circumduction eswinging the arm in acircle 7 articulatory system range of motion (ROM) “ the range through which ajoint can be moved, usually its range of ï‚exion and extension “ passive  when movement provided by force outside the indivitual “ active  when the individual moves the joint on his/her own clinicians use agoniometer to read angles and determine whether passive/active ROM are within normal limits 8 spinal cord injuries for complete spinal cord injuries: “ cervical injuries: quadriplegia  above C4: requires ventilator for breathing  C5: shoulder and biceps control (not wrist or hand)  C6: wrist control but not ïngers  C7 and T1: can straighten arm but dexterity problems “ thoracic: paraplegia  T1-T8: poor trunk control (no abdominal muscle control)  T9-T12: good trunk + abdominal muscle control, good siing  lumbar and sacral: decreasing control of hip ï‚exors and legs 17 en.Wikipedia.Orwiki/image:gray_111_- _vertebral_column-coloured.Png autonomic nervous system also called visceral nervous system branches of certain peripheral nerves (both cranial and spinal) that connect to: “ organs in thorax, abdomen, and pelvis “ most of blood vessels and glands controls internal environment (maintaining homeostasis mostly without conscious control or sensation “ controls breathin heart rate, perspirin temperature, salivation, diameter of pupil divided into: “ sympathetic (responds to impending danger or stress) eincreases heartbeablood pressure “ parasympathetic (when one is resting and relaxed) econstriction of pupil, slowing of heart “ enteric  manages digestion 18 the skeletal system functions of the bones: “ forming skeletal support“ act as levers for movement“ basis for muscle aachment “ protect vital organs  cranial and thoracic cavity “ storage of nutrients + production of red blood cells components of the skeletal system: “ skull“ vertebral column“ thorax“ pelvis“ upper and lower extremity bones 1 www.Med.Mun.Ca/anatomyts/head/latskullif vertebral column “ stack of vertebrae protecting the spinal cord  cervical 1-C7) thoracic (T1-T12)  lumbar (L1-L5) sacral (S1-S5) thorax “ sternum “ ribs 2 hippocrates.Ouhsc.Edu/showcase/gross/lab3ig2-6.Jpg vertebral column and thorax www.Library.Mun.Ca/hsl/batesh08-p245.Jpg ANS and spinal cord injury part of the autonomic nervous system of aperson with spinal cord injury may be compromised consequences: “ poor regulation of temperature because vascular tone disturbed and perspiration weak or absent  need to manually control the environment temperature “ bladder and colon may contract or relax  causing retention or voiding “ autonomic dysreï‚exia (blood pressure rises w/o control)  typically for injuries at T5 or above  hyperactivity of autonomic system “ irritating stimulus in body below cord injury sends impulses to spinal cord which are blocked by injury and cannot make it to central nervous system activating reï‚ex that increases activity of sympathetic autonomic nervous system  if not controlled, may lead to stroke 19 abnormalities of coordination ataxia “ unsteadiness, incoordination, clumsiness of movement  results in activity that is jerky, halting and imprecise rather than smoothly coordinated dysmetria “ inability to estimate the range of movement needed to reach the target of movement  overshooting or undershooting the intended position with hand, arm, le or eye tremor (involuntary shakin  intention tremor: during voluntary movement “ common in MS, parkinson!S  resting tremor: in the absence of voluntary movement  pill-rolling tremor 20 (skeletal) muscles muscle at rest are never completely relaxed “ at rest: muscle tone  high enough to resist gravity, low enough to move abnormal muscle tone “ hypotonia (decreased muscle tone, ï‚accidity)  due to damage in central nervous system  atrophy “ of denervation (when anerve to amuscle is cu “ of disuse (due to immobility or inactivity of abody par “ hypertonicity (increased muscle tone)  paerns of ï‚exion or extension “ typical in stroke, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis “ rigidity  both agonist and antagonist muscles contract steadily “ typical in parkinson!S, encephalitis, brain tumors, some degenerative diseases 11 nervous system anatomical subdivision: “ central nervous system NS) “ peripheral nervous system (PNS) functional subdivision: “ somatic nervous system  coordinates activities under conscious control or sensation “ autonomic nervous system  activities without conscious control or sesation nerves are responsible for: “ carrying sensory information from receptors to CNS  sensory neurons “ carrying motor information from CNS to effectors  motor neurons 12 en.Wikipedia.Orwiki/ image:3dscience_male_nervous_system_labeled.Jpg central nervous system composed of brain and spinal cord brain “ consists of cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem “ if an area is damaged (e traumatic brain injury) or the blood supply is interrupted (e cerebral vascular accident or stroke the related function is lost  sometimes other brain areas can take over those functions spinal cord “ column of nerves continuous with bran stem ending at upper border of second lumbar vertebrae “ spinal cord injury (SCI) causes partial or complete interruption in the transmission of nerve signals  level of injury determines function and movements compromised 13 upload.Wikimedia.Orwikipedia/ en/9/90rainlobes.Png peripheral nervous system 14 www.Neurophys.Com/emgranial_nervesranial nerves.Jpg nerves in the peripheral nervous systems are of two types: cranial and spinal cranial nerves (aached to brain) “ do not use spinal cord for connection  hence, unaffected by spinal cord injuries “ mostly serve motor and sensory system of head and neck regions  except for X( vagus nerve ) and XI  these provide parasympathetic ïbers to thoracic and abdominal viscera www.Apparelyzed.Com/_images/contenspine/spinenerves.Jpg peripheral nervous system spinal nerves (aached to spinal cord) “ exit in between vertebrae“ branch out and become several nerves as they reach to the ends of the limbs “ carry two types of nerves:  sensory nerves keep the body in touch with the outside world  motor nerves control interaction with outside world 15 spinal cord injuries 10,000 new cases each year in the US “ currently about 450,000 in the US “ most expensive condition among all causes for hospitalization “ due to:  trauma tumor  ischemia developmental/neurodegenerative diseases may be complete or incomplete “ complete: no function (sensation or voluntary movemen below the level of injury “ incomplete: some functioning remaining 16 common pathologies of the bone fractures amputations “ eof toes or foot due to diabetes congenital/acquired deformities osteoporis “ common in elderly and persons who do not weightbear regularly through joints (e because bedridden) heterotopic ossiïcation “ most common in individuals who have an injury, such as spinal cord injury, that results in neurologic deïcits 5 articulatory system joints (articulations) “ junction between two or more bones “ connected by ïbrous tissue, cartilage, or synovial ï‚uid classiïcation of joints: “ if not moving (e skull): synarthrosis“ limited movement (e vertebrae): amphiarthrosis“ freely moving: diathrosis 6 commons.Bcica/biology/articulations/pics/skull_jpg commons.Bcica/biology/articulations/pics/symphysis.Jpg