The Irish diminutive suffix -een Sentence first anoxic brain injury treatment facilities

In A brilliant void, a new anthology of vintage irish science fiction edited by jack fennell (tramp press, 2018), I saw some examples of a grammatical feature I’ve been what is severe anoxic brain injury meaning to write about: the irish english suffix –een. Anglicised from irish – ín /iːn/, it normally signifies littleness or endearment but can also disparage or serve other functions.

The – ín suffix is so productive in irish, and irish so influences the traditional dialects of english in ireland, that it’s no surprise –een became established in vernacular irish english, especially in the west. You probably know it if you’re at all familiar with irish postanoxic encephalopathy definition speech or culture; even if not, you may recognise some of the examples below.


The stories in A brilliant void range from 1837 to 1960. In these earlier incarnations sci-fi sometimes drew on gothic or occult traditions, as well as – appropriately for this post – folk-belief. In ‘the sorcerer’ by county mayo writer charlotte mcmanus (1853–1944), a woman is party to a ritual involving blades of grass placed in a bowl of water:

Boreen ‘country lane’, listed in some english dictionaries, is from irish bóithrín ‘little road’, from bóthar ‘road’ + – ín. Walking along a boreen, you may encounter a boneen or bonneen ‘piglet’, from irish anoxic brain damage prognosis bainbhín ( banbh ‘pig’ + – ín). Animal names often contain the suffix, especially small or baby animals. This glossary of irish bird names has many.

It’s rife in the natural world hypoxic brain injury after cardiac arrest. Dolan’s hiberno-english dictionary contains entries for cúilín ‘little field’, kippeen ‘little stick’ (from irish cipín, used when lighting a fire), móinín ‘grassy patch’, pairceen (irish páircín) ‘small field’, puithín ‘puff of wind’, rúitín ‘ankle, knuckle, fetlock’ (< irish rúta ‘root’), táithín ‘wisp, tuft, tiny fistful’, among others. All these irish words have been borrowed into irish english.

While –een can be used to form nonce words (examples further down), it sometimes becomes lexicalised and cannot be removed without undoing the sense, e.G., smithereens (irish smidrín ‘small fragment’); poteen ( poitín cerebral anoxia symptoms ‘little pot’); spalpeen ( spailpín), an itinerant labourer, a rascal, or a boy; jackeen, a certain type of dubliner; and shebeen / sheebeen ‘unlicensed drinking place’ or ‘whiskey’, from irish síbín, possibly from séibe ‘mug’ + – ín.

Irish folklore has a phenomenon called hypoxic brain injury recovery stories the fóidín meara, also fóidín mearaí, marbh, mearbhall, mearaide, etc., where someone out walking steps on a piece of ground and immediately loses all sense of direction. It literally means ‘little sod of bewilderment’; fóidín is diminutive of fód ‘sod’. Decades ago, children were commonly asked to bring a fód (sod of turf) to school to contribute to its heating.

Irish cuisine makes ample use of the suffix. The famous seaweed carrageen ( carragheen, carrigeen, etc.) owes its name to carraig + –ín, literally ‘little rock’. You might put a dropeen of its jelly in your bowleen of soup. A toirtín is a small scone or cake anoxemia (good with a suppeen of tae), a póirín a small potato. Drisheens and crubeens feature drisín ‘intestine’, i.E., a type of black pudding, and crúibín ‘little hoof or claw’, i.E., pig’s trotter.

–een becomes “a morphological device for the expression of disparagement” (weinreich 1963). Burke (1896) suggests that “the delicate flavour of contempt conveyed by this anxiety attack treatment nhs suffix cannot be adequately represented in english” . . . . Jackeen “native of dublin” implies the special combination of conceit and urban slickness peculiar to (or attributed to) “little” citizens of the capital. From a rural-historical context comes squireen, which joyce (1910) defines as “an irish gentleman in a small way who apes the manners . . . Of the large landed proprietors. Sometimes,” he adds hypoxic anoxic brain injury wiki, “you can hardly distinguish a squireen from a shoneen”, i.E. “a would-be gentleman who puts on superior airs (ibid.). However, shoneen (ir. Seoinín, from E john + –ín) has the more general and inclusive implication of obsequiousness, toadying and lack of principle; in a political and cultural context it can mean a “west briton”, i.E. One who looks to britain for norms and values.

The suffix is still popular in the west and seems to be especially favoured by rural-based monoglot E speakers, e.G. “…a pumpeen … a small wireen … a three-cord flexeen /flekʃiːn/ … make the chase [in the wall] a small anxiety attack symptoms list biteen deeper …” (a galway electrician’s instructions to his apprentice). The repeated use of the redundant small suggests that the –een termination has ceased to carry the sense of diminutiveness and that it is used so freely as to have become a verbal reflex without semantic charge. This conclusion is reinforced by the following from the same speaker: “[he was] wearin’ an oul capeen with a speckeen [ir. Speic ‘peak’ + – ín] an’ it fallin’ down over his faceen /feːʃiːn/.” further –een forms from him what can anxiety attacks do to you are badgereen, birdeen, bullockeen, dogeen, fieldeen, fisheen, footeen, handeen, sandpiteen, shoe-een, whore-een. Collectively, the exx above bring to mind mary mccarthy’s observation that diminutization of something “has the curious effect of at once deprecating and dignifying it”.

Though I use the – een suffix regularly, only a couple of the above terms sound natural to me, and I would say them only in particular contexts. Such superfluity can also be seen in the folk tale ‘ the little cakeen’: ‘once upon a time there was a little maneen and a little womaneen; and the little womaneen made a little cakeen and put anoxic seizure nhs it in the oven to bake.’