Sodium bicarbonate side effects in detail – brain anoxia

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur while taking sodium bicarbonate:

• frequent urge to urinate

• headache (continuing)

• loss of appetite (continuing)

• mood or mental changes

• muscle pain or twitching

• nausea or vomiting

• nervousness or restlessness

• slow breathing

• swelling of feet or lower legs

• unpleasant taste

• unusual tiredness or weakness

Some side effects of sodium bicarbonate may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them: less common

brain anoxia

• increased thirst

• stomach cramps

For healthcare professionals

Applies to sodium bicarbonate: compounding powder, intravenous solution, oral tablet


Chronic ingestion of bicarbonate may rarely cause intravascular volume expansion with resultant hyporeninemia and hypoaldosteronemia. In this rare circumstance, the serum potassium may be elevated.

Rare cases of sodium bicarbonate abuse have been associated with features of munchausen syndrome. These patients often present with an otherwise unexplained hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis.

Hypernatremia may cause water retention, weight gain, and edema, which may be important in some patients with congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, or severe liver disease. [ ref]

brain anoxia

Metabolic side effects have included metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia/hyperosmolarity, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia. These effects have been associated with rapid or prolonged administration. Side effects have rarely included intravascular volume expansion with resultant hyporeninemia and hypoaldosteronemia. [ ref] respiratory

The respiratory drive may be suppressed after bicarbonate administration due to increased venous C02 concentration. Without adequate ventilation, worsened systemic acidosis could develop. [ ref]

Respiratory side effects have included suppressed respiratory drive. [ ref] nervous system

Rapid infusion of hyperosmolar sodium bicarbonate has been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage in the pediatric literature.Brain anoxia

Irritability and tetany have been associated with sodium bicarbonate-induced alkalosis or hypernatremia.

Due to greater permeability of the blood-brain barrier to hydrogen than to bicarbonate, the ph of cerebrospinal fluid may significantly decrease during sodium bicarbonate administration, which can cause mental stupor or coma. [ ref]

Nervous system side effects have included irritability, tetany, mental stupor, coma, and intraventricular hemorrhage. [ ref] local

Local side effects have included IV site pain, venous irritation, and extravasation. Cellulitis, tissue necrosis, ulceration, or skin sloughing have possibly been the result of extravasation. A slow rate of administration of a properly diluted solution into a large bore needle and vein is recommended if IV administration is necessary. [ ref] cardiovascular

brain anoxia

Cardiovascular side effects have included decreased cardiac contractility possibly resulting from infusion of sodium bicarbonate in patients with severe acidosis. [ ref]

Experimentally, the administration of intravenous hypertonic sodium bicarbonate has been associated with increased serum osmolality, decreased ionized serum calcium (which is associated with decreased myocardial contractility), and peripheral vasodilation. Some experts recommend invasive hemodynamic monitoring in acidotic patients before the administration of bicarbonate. [ ref] gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal side effects associated with oral administration have rarely included gastric rupture. [ ref]

As an antacid, sodium bicarbonate, especially after excess food or liquid, can cause excess gas release (when combined with gastric acid).Brain anoxia the mortality associated with gastric rupture is as high as 65%. [ ref] renal

Urinary alkalinization from bicarbonate can cause a falsely positive colorimetric assay for protein. [ ref]

Renal side effects have rarely included false proteinuria. [ ref]


1. Wu DJ, mifune J, taga K, hifumi S, takahashi Y, yamashida S, nishioka S, murakami T, tanaka T anginal attack following a sodium bicarbonate and hydrocortisone injection. Jpn heart J 31 (1990): 109-13

2. Kennedy S sodium bicarbonate abuse in anorexia nervosa. J clin psychiatry 49 (1988): 168

3. Hazard PB, griffin JP sodium bicarbonate in the management of systemic acidosis. South med J 73 (1980): 1339-42,1348

4. Linford SM, james HD sodium bicarbonate abuse: a case report.Brain anoxia br J psychiatry 149 (1986): 502-3

5. Arieff AI managing metabolic acidosis: update on the sodium bicarbonate controversy. J crit illn 8 (1993): 224-46

6. Product information. Sodium bicarbonate (sodium bicarbonate). Astra USA, westborough, MA.

7. Cooper DJ, walley KR, wiggs BR, russell JA bicarbonate does not improve hemodynamics in critically ill patients who have lactic acidosisis. Ann intern med 112 (1990): 492-8

8. Thomas SH, stone CK acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion. Am J emerg med 12 (1994): 57-9

9. Oster JR, perez GO, rosen MS hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism after chronic sodium bicarbonate abuse. Arch intern med 136 (1976): 1179-80

10. Okada H, inoue T, takahira S, sugahara S, nakamoto H, suzuki H daytime hypertension, sleep apnea and metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient – the result of sodium bicarbonate abuse.Brain anoxia nephrol dialysis transplant 14 (1999): 452-4

11. Griffith J, white P acute asthma precipitated by accidental inhalation of sodium bicarbonate granules (carbex). Clin radiol 49 (1994): 435

12. Lou HC, lassen NA, fris-hansen B decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant. Acta neurol scand 57 (1978): 239-47

13. Papile LA, burstein J, burstein R, koffler H, koops B relationship of intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusions and cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage. J pediatr 93 (1978): 834-6

14. Speer ME, rudolph AJ calcification of superficial scalp veins secondary to intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride. Cutis 32 (1983): 65-6

brain anoxia

15. Prakash P, saxena S complication of sodium bicarbonate therapy–a case report. Indian J pediatr 45 (1978): 277-8

16. Cooper DJ, worthley LI adverse haemodynamic effects of sodium bicarbonate in metabolic acidosis. Intensive care med 13 (1987): 425-7

17. Rao RS, graver ML, urivetsky M, scharf SM mechanisms of myocardial depression after bolus injection of sodium bicarbonate. J crit care 9 (1994): 255-61

18. Bleske BE, warren EW, rice TL, gilligan LJ, tait AR effect of high-dose sodium bicarbonate on the vasopressor effects of epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pharmacotherapy 15 (1995): 660-4

19. Fordtran JS, morawski SG, santa ana CA, rector FC, jr gas production after reaction of sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid.Brain anoxia gastroenterology 87 (1984): 1014-21

20. Lazebnik N, iellin A, michowitz M spontaneous rupture of the normal stomach after sodium bicarbonate ingestion. J clin gastroenterol 8 (1986): 454-6

21. Mastrangelo MR, moore EW spontaneous rupture of the stomach in a healthy adult man after sodium bicarbonate ingestion. Ann intern med 101 (1984): 649-50

22. Brismar B, strandberg A, wiklund B stomach rupture following ingestion of sodium bicarbonate. Acta chir scand suppl 530 (1986): 97-9

23. Downs NM, stonebridge PA gastric rupture due to excessive sodium bicarbonate ingestion. Scott med J 34 (1989): 534-5

Some side effects of sodium bicarbonate may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice.Brain anoxia you may also report side effects to the FDA.

More about sodium bicarbonate

• side effects

• during pregnancy

• dosage information

• drug images

• drug interactions

• support group

• pricing coupons

• en español

• 1 review –

Add your own review/rating

• drug class: antacids

Consumer resources

• sodium bicarbonate

• sodium bicarbonate tablets

• sodium bicarbonate injection

• sodium bicarbonate oral, intravenous, subcutaneous (advanced reading)

Other brands: neut professional resources

• sodium bicarbonate (AHFS monograph)

• … +3 more

Related treatment guides

• asystole

• diabetic ketoacidosis

• hyperkalemia

• hyperuricemia secondary to chemotherapy

• … +3 more

Disclaimer: every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect.Brain anoxia in addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. Drugs.Com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided.Brain anoxia the information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.