Prime pubmed musicogenic epilepsy journal articles from pubmed severe anoxic brain injury

Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) consists of several syndromes diagnosed and classified on the basis of clinical features and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. The main EEG feature of GGE is bilateral, synchronous, symmetric, and generalized spike-wave complex. Other classic EEG abnormalities are polyspikes, epileptiform K-complexes and sleep spindles, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, eye-closure sensitivity, fixation-off sensitivity, and photoparoxysmal response. However, admixed with typical changes, atypical epileptiform discharges are also commonly seen in GGE.

There are circadian variations of generalized epileptiform discharges. Sleep, sleep deprivation, hyperventilation, intermittent photic stimulation, eye closure, and fixation-off are often used as activation techniques to increase the diagnostic yield of EEG recordings.Severe anoxic brain injury reflex seizure-related EEG abnormalities can be elicited by the use of triggers such as cognitive tasks and pattern stimulation during the EEG recording in selected patients. Distinct electrographic abnormalities to help classification can be identified among different electroclinical syndromes.

The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together. Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures.Severe anoxic brain injury the 2017 ILAE position paper on classification of the epilepsies recognized that as a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking. The concept of epilepsy syndromes evolved, incorporating issues related to aetiologies and comorbidities. A comprehensive update (and revision where necessary) of the EEG diagnostic criteria in the light of the 2017 revised terminology and concepts was deemed necessary. The work was commissioned by the neurophysiology task force of the ILAE committee on the diagnostic methods. Diagnostic criteria and recording procedures were developed by group consensus, reached through an informal, internal decision-making process.Severe anoxic brain injury each working group member was allocated a number of syndromes, and a standard structured template was used. International literature was extensively reviewed. We developed a simple diagnostic system that is applicable to all epilepsy syndromes which allows the physician (i) to rate the strength of EEG diagnosis (degree of diagnostic certainty) by weighting EEG findings in relation to the available clinical information or the specific clinical question, and ii) to suggest further EEG diagnostics where conclusive diagnostic evidence is lacking. We also propose a system of syndrome-specific recording protocols that, used with the relevant clinical presentation or specific clinical question, may maximize activation of epileptic discharges and ultimately help with standardization of EEG recording across departments, worldwide.Severe anoxic brain injury because recording methodology also depends on available resources, a two-tier system was developed to embrace clinical EEG services in resource-limited and industrialized countries. A clinical practice statement for each of the epilepsy syndromes discussed underscores the crucial role of the clinical information with regards to both the optimization of the EEG recording and mainly its meaningful interpretation. Part I covers genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsies and syndromes, reflex epilepsies, structural and genetic focal (lobar) syndromes and progressive myoclonus epilepsies [published with educational EEG plates on www.Epilepticdisorders.Com].

The anticonvulsant effect of cannabinoid compound has been shown in various models of seizure.Severe anoxic brain injury on the other hand, there are controversial findings about the role of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Also, there is no data regarding the effect of co-administration of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists and BK channels antagonists in the acute models of seizure in mice. In this study, the effect of arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor agonist, and a BK channel antagonist, paxilline, either alone or in combination was investigated. Both pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) acute models of seizure were used to evaluate the protective effects of drugs. Mice were randomly selected in different groups: (i) control group; (ii) groups that received different doses of either paxilline or ACEA; and (iii) groups that received combinations of ACEA and paxillin at different doses.Severe anoxic brain injury in MES model, prevention of hindlimb tonic extension (HLTE) was considered as protective effect. In PTZ model, the required dose of PTZ (mg/kg) to induce tonic-clonic seizure with loss of righting reflex was considered as seizure threshold. In PTZ model, while administration of ACEA per se (5 and 10 mg/kg) caused protective effect against seizure; however, co-administration of ACEA and ineffective doses of paxilline attenuated the antiseizure effects of paxilline. In MES model, while pretreatment by ACEA showed protective effects against seizure; however, co-administration of paxilline and ACEA caused an antagonistic interaction for their antiseizure properties. Our results showed a protective effect of ACEA in both PTZ and MES acute models of seizure.Severe anoxic brain injury this effect was attenuated by co-administration with paxilline, suggesting the involvement of BK channels in antiseizure activity of ACEA.

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are a nonspecific, umbrella category that is used to collect together a range of atypical neurophysiological responses to emotional distress, physiological stressors and danger. Because PNES mimic epileptic seizures, children and adolescents with PNES usually present to neurologists or to epilepsy monitoring units. After a comprehensive neurological evaluation and a diagnosis of PNES, the patient is referred to mental health services for treatment. This study documents the diagnostic formulations – the clinical formulations about the probable neurophysiological mechanisms – that were constructed for 60 consecutive children and adolescents with PNES who were referred to our mind-body rehabilitation programme for treatment.Severe anoxic brain injury as a heuristic framework, we used a contemporary reworking of janet’s dissociation model: PNES occur in the context of a destabilized neural system and reflect a release of prewired motor programmes following a functional failure in cognitive-emotional executive control circuitry. Using this framework, we clustered the 60 patients into six different subgroups: (1) dissociative PNES (23/60; 38%), (2) dissociative PNES triggered by hyperventilation (32/60; 53%), (3) innate defence responses presenting as PNES (6/60; 10%), (4) PNES triggered by vocal cord adduction (1/60; 2%), (5) PNES triggered by activation of the valsalva manoeuvre (1/60; 1.5%) and (6) PNES triggered by reflex activation of the vagus (2/60; 3%).Severe anoxic brain injury as described in the companion article, these diagnostic formulations were used, in turn, both to inform the explanations of PNES that we gave to families and to design clinical interventions for helping the children and adolescents gain control of their PNES. New search next