Prime pubmed hypotonic saline journal articles from pubmed anoxic brain injury symptoms

• assessment of common red blood cell pretreatments to yield an accurate serologic antigen phenotype compared with genotypepredicted phenotype. [journal article]

• iimmunohematology 2017; 33(4):147-151

• horn T, hamilton J, … keller MA

• CONCLUSIONS: for patients requiring multiple transfusions and patients with positive direct antiglobulin tests (dats), an extended red blood cell (RBC) phenotype can provide valuable information and help to determine the risk of forming alloantibodies. In some instances, the phenotype may be used for prophylactic matching. Phenotyping in this patient population is often hindered by the presence of circulating donor cells and/or by a positive DAT.


Several methods, such as EDTA glycine acid (EGA) treatment to remove igg, hypotonic saline wash to separate autologous rbcs, or reticulocyte separation, are often used in these situations to isolate patient rbcs for serologic phenotyping.Anoxic brain injury symptoms this study aimed to determine the accuracy of each RBC pretreatment method by comparing serologically determined antigen types with those predicted by RBC genotyping. Forty-eight peripheral blood samples from recently transfused patients were phenotyped for selected antigens in the rh, kell, MNS, duffy, and kidd systems. Treatment methods for the sample sets were reticulocyte separation (N = 12), EGA (N = 16), and hypotonic saline wash (N = 20). DNA was extracted using standard methods, and genotyping was performed using the HEA beadchip panel. In addition, 21 samples positive for RBC-bound igg were egatreated up to two times. These samples were analyzed pre- and post-EGA treatment for RBC-bound igg by tube DAT and by flow cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antihuman igg.Anoxic brain injury symptoms after reticulocyte separation, 3 of the 12 samples had discordant types with one antigen each: fyb, N, and K; serologic results were negative compared with genotype-predicted positive phenotype results. The EGA-treated sample set showed one discordant type: fyb; serologic results were negative compared with genotype-predicted positive phenotype results. Four of the 20 samples had discordant types involving the following antigens: fyb, N, e, and M; serologic results were negative compared with genotype-predicted positive phenotype results. After EGA treatment of 21 samples, 14 (67%) were negative for RBC-bound igg by tube DAT, and 7 remained positive. Using flow cytometry, EGA treatment rendered only 4 samples negative, and 17 remained positive.Anoxic brain injury symptoms in the antigen testing sample set of 48 samples, 10 of 511 total antigen types tested were discordant. Discordant types were most frequent in the hypotonic saline wash sample set (N = 6). In the flow cytometry sample set, 48 percent of the samples negative by tube DAT after EGA elution had detectable rbcbound igg by flow cytometry. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when using phenotype results from all pretreated rbcs and support the use of RBC genotyping to predict RBC antigen expression in samples from recently transfused patients.

Carbon nanotubes (cnts) have emerged recently as superior adsorbent materials for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants. The potential of combining the sorption capability of cnts with bacterial degradation for pollutant removal, however, necessitates further investigation of the mechanisms of cnts’ toxicity towards bacterial cells.Anoxic brain injury symptoms in this study, we used a panel of stress-responsive recombinant escherichia coli bioluminescence bacterial strains to explore the possible mechanisms of toxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts). The effects of mwcnts on markers of oxidative stress, protein, DNA, and membrane damage enabled the exposition of some of the mechanisms of their antimicrobial properties. Using both a bioluminescence bioreporter panel and live/dead staining, we observed that membrane damage played a role in the toxicity of mwcnts. A subsequent viability study using three strains of bacteria-two gram-negative (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one gram-positive (bacillus subtilis)-showed significant MWCNT toxicity in hypotonic water and phosphate-buffered saline solution, compared with the MWCNT toxicity towards the same bacteria incubated in isotonic-rich media.Anoxic brain injury symptoms using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, we demonstrated that membrane damage is caused largely by mwcnts trapping bacteria and piercing the cell walls. As a result of our observations, we propose integrating mwcnts and bacteria degradation for pollutant removal in nutrient-rich media to minimize the toxicity effect of cnts.

In previous work, we have shown the sodium/potassium/2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC1) to be a key effector of lens fiber cell volume regulation. Since others have shown that the activity of NKCC1 is regulated via its phosphorylation status, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether NKCC1 phosphorylation can be modulated in organ cultured bovine lenses, and to see how this relates to changes in lens wet weight.Anoxic brain injury symptoms western blotting was first used to confirm the expression of NKCC1, phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-P) and the regulatory kinases WNK/SPAK and phosphatases PP1/PP2A in bovine lenses at the protein level. Changes to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A. After 1-22 h of culturing, lenses were weighed, assessed for transparency and the cortical protein fractions analyzed by western blot using antibodies to detect total NKCC1 and NKCC1-P. NKCC1, NKCC1-P, SPAK, PP1 and PP2A were all detected in the membrane fraction of bovine lenses.Anoxic brain injury symptoms under hypertonic conditions, NKCC1 is phosphorylated and activated to mediate a regulatory volume increase. Finally, NKCC1-P signal increased in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors indicating that PP1/PP2A can dephosphorylate NKCC1. These results show that the phosphorylation status and hence activity of NKCC1 is dynamically regulated and that in response to hypertonic stress, NKCC1 activity is increased to effect a regulatory volume increase that limits cell shrinkage. These findings support the view that the lens dynamically regulates ion fluxes to maintain steady state lens volume, and suggest that dysfunction of this regulation maybe an initiating factor in the localized fiber cell swelling that is a characteristic of diabetic lens cataract.Anoxic brain injury symptoms

The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1 M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using histology, immunohistochemistry, GSL-1 lectin (alpha-gal epitope) staining, biochemical assays, uniaxial tensile and in vitro cytotoxicity tests. There was no microscopic evidence of cells in decellularised porcine dermis.Anoxic brain injury symptoms DNA content was reduced by 98.2% compared to cellular porcine skin. There were no significant differences in the biomechanical parameters studied or evidence of cytotoxicity. The decellularised porcine dermis retained residual alpha-gal epitope. Basement membrane collagen IV immunostaining was lost following decellularisation; however, laminin staining was retained.

Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia.Anoxic brain injury symptoms the other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone). Hypovolemic hyponatremia is managed by rehydration with isotonic saline. Hypervolemic hyponatremia is managed by addressing the underlying cause. Euvolemic hyponatremia is managed by restricting free water intake, addressing the underlying cause, and occasionally with drugs (eg, vasopressin receptor antagonists). Patients with severe or acutely symptomatic hyponatremia (eg, altered mental status, seizures), including those with acute symptomatic exercise-induced hyponatremia, require urgent treatment.Anoxic brain injury symptoms this should consist of hypertonic saline administration along with monitoring of sodium levels to avoid overly rapid correction. Hypernatremia most often occurs because of water loss or inadequate water intake. Depending on severity, management involves oral or intravenous hypotonic fluids and addressing the underlying cause.

The aim of the current study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of hypotonic (iopamidol) and isotonic (iodixanol) contract media (cms) in vitro and in vivo. A total of 60 wistar rats were included and were randomly divided into three groups (20 rats per group). Iodixanol (4 g iodine/kg), iopamidol (4 g iodine/kg) or equal volume of normal saline was injected via tail vein.Anoxic brain injury symptoms HUVEC and H5V cell viability was determined by cell counting kit‑8 agents. Western blotting was performed to detect ATP‑binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1) expression. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed. Plasma endothelin, von willebrand factor, tissue type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, D‑dimer, fibrinogen, anti‑thrombin III, plasminogen and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were measured by using ELISA. Both iopamidol and iodixanol treatments deceased cell viability and increased apoptosis of HUVEC and H5V cells, along with downregulated NOS and ABCG1. The injection of iopamidol or iodixanol into rats changed the endothelium‑related plasma levels of biomarkers, including endothelin, von willebrand factor, tissue type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, D‑dimer, fibrinogen and anti‑thrombin III.Anoxic brain injury symptoms however, endothelia isolated from rat abdominal aorta in the iodixanol group retained their normal structure, whereas endothelial structure in the iopamidol group was injured and disrupted. The findings in the present study suggested that both hypotonic and isotonic cms may lead to endothelial dysfunction and thrombin and fibrinolytic system disorder. However, hypotonic cms may be more toxic than isotonic cms. Therefore, additional cautions should be taken when selecting hypotonic cms and their dosages during cardioangiography.