Pgo waves significado de anoxia

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PGO waves


Potentials. These waves can be recorded from the pons , the lateral

Geniculate nucleus (LGN), and the occipital cortex regions of the

Brain, where these waveforms originate. The waves begin as electrical

Pulses from the pons, then move to the lateral geniculate nucleus

Residing in the thalamus , and then finally end up in the primary

Visual cortex of the occipital lobe.

The appearances of these waves

Are most prominent in the period right before rapid eye movement sleep

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(or REM sleep), and are theorized to be intricately involved with eye

Movement of both wake and sleep cycles in many different animals


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The PONS is part of the brainstem , and in humans and other bipeds

Lies inferior to the midbrain , superior to the medulla oblongata and

Anterior to the cerebellum . The pons is also called the PONS VAROLII (bridge of varolius),

After the italian anatomist and surgeon

Costanzo varolio(1543–75).

This region of the brainstem includes neural pathways or tracts that

Conduct signals from the brain down to the cerebellum and medulla, and

Tracts that carry the sensory signals up into the thalamus . The pons in humans measures about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) in

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Length. Most of it appears as a broad anterior bulge rostral to the

Medulla. Posteriorly, it consists mainly of two pairs of thick stalks

Called cerebellar peduncles . They connect the cerebellum to the pons

And midbrain


Pons on:




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Lateral geniculate nucleus



The thalamus for the visual pathway . It receives a major sensory

Input from the retina . The LGN is the main central connection for the

Optic nerve to the occipital lobe , particularly the primary visual

Cortex . In humans, each LGN has six layers of neurons (grey matter)

Alternating with optic fibers (white matter).Significado de anoxia the LGN is a small, ovoid, ventral projection at the termination of

The optic tract on each side of the brain. The LGN and the medial

Geniculate nucleus which deals with auditory information are both

Thalamic nuclei and so are present in both hemispheres . The LGN receives information directly from the ascending retinal

Ganglion cells via the optic tract and from the reticular activating

System . Neurons of the LGN send their axons through the optic

Radiation , a direct pathway to the primary visual cortex


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Occipital cortex

The OCCIPITAL LOBE is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral

Cortex in the brain of mammals . The occipital lobe is the visual

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Processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the

Anatomical region of the visual cortex . The primary visual cortex is

Brodmann area 17 , commonly called V1 (visual one). Human V1 is

Located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine

Sulcus ; the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole

Of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because

It can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the stria of gennari

. Visually driven regions outside V1 are called extrastriate cortex .

There are many extrastriate regions, and these are specialized for

Different visual tasks, such as visuospatial processing, color

Differentiation, and motion perception.Significado de anoxia the name derives from the

Overlying occipital bone , which is named from the

Latin OB, behind,

And CAPUT, the head


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The THALAMUS (from greek θάλαμος, chamber) is the large

Mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the

Brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory and motor

Signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness

, sleep , and alertness . It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the

Vertebrate brain , situated between the cerebral cortex and the

Midbrain . The medial surface of the two halves constitute the upper

Lateral wall of the third ventricle . It is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon , as first

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Assigned by

Wilhelm his, sr. In 1893


Thalamus on:




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Rapid eye movement sleep

RAPID EYE MOVEMENT SLEEP (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep

In mammals and birds, characterized by random/rapid movement of the

Eyes , accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the

Propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly. The REM phase is also known as PARADOXICAL SLEEP (PS) and sometimes

DESYNCHRONIZED SLEEP because of physiological similarities to waking

States, including rapid, low-voltage desynchronized brain waves .

Electrical and chemical activity regulating this phase seems to

Originate in the brain stem and is characterized most notably by an

Abundance of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine , combined with a

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Nearly complete absence of monoamine neurotransmitters histamine,

Serotonin, and norepinephrine. REM sleep is physiologically different from the other phases of

Sleep, which are collectively referred to as non-REM sleep (NREM

Sleep, NREMS, synchronized sleep)


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Animal model

A MODEL ORGANISM is a non-human species that is extensively studied

To understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation

That discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into

The workings of other organisms. Model organisms are in vivo models

And are widely used to research human disease when human

Experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical .Significado de anoxia this strategy is

Made possible by the common descent of all living organisms, and the

Conservation of metabolic and developmental pathways and genetic

Material over the course of evolution . Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken

When extrapolating from one organism to another. In researching human disease , model organisms allow for better

Understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming an

Actual human


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ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring

Method to record electrical activity of the brain . It is typically

Noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp , although

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Invasive electrodes are sometimes used such as in electrocorticography

. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current

Within the neurons of the brain . In clinical contexts, EEG refers to

The recording of the brain’s spontaneous electrical activity over a

Period of time, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the

Scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus either on event-related

Potentials or on the spectral content of EEG. The former investigates

Potential fluctuations time locked to an event like stimulus onset or

Button press. The latter analyses the type of neural oscillations

(popularly called brain waves) that can be observed in EEG signals

In the frequency domain


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Electroencephalography on:




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Deep brain stimulation

DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving

The implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator

(sometimes referred to as a ‘brain pacemaker’), which sends electrical

Impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the

Brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and

Neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS in select brain regions has provided

Therapeutic benefits for otherwise-treatment-resistant disorders such

As parkinson\’s disease , essential tremor , dystonia , chronic pain ,

Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite

The long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are

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Still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled

Manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning

Techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that

Allow blinded studies


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A NEURON (/ˈnjʊərɒn/ _NYEWR-on_ or /ˈnʊərɒn/ _NEWR-on_ ,

Also known as a NEURONE or NERVE CELL) is an electrically excitable

Cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and

Chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via specialized

Connections called synapses . Neurons can connect to each other to

Form neural networks . Neurons are major components of the brain and

Spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and of the autonomic

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Ganglia of the peripheral nervous system . There are several types of specialized neurons. Sensory neurons

Respond to stimuli such as touch, sound or light and all other stimuli

Affecting the cells of the sensory organs that then send signals to

The spinal cord and brain.

Motor neurons receive signals from the

Brain and spinal cord to cause muscle contractions and affect

Glandular outputs


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Slow-wave sleep cycle

SLOW-WAVE SLEEP (SWS), often referred to as DEEP SLEEP, consists of

Stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep

. Initially, SWS consisted of both stage 3 (N3), which has 20-50

Percent delta wave activity , and stage four (N4), which has more than

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50 percent delta wave activity. However, as of 2008, the american

Academy of


Sleep medicine (AASM) has discontinued the use of stage

Four as a separate stage. Thus, the two stages are now combined as

Stage three. An epoch (30 seconds of sleep) which consists of 20% or

More slow-wave (delta) sleep is now considered to be stage three. This period of sleep is called slow-wave sleep because the EEG

Activity is synchronized, producing slow waves with a frequency range

Of 0.5-2 hz and peak-to-peak amplitude greater than 75µv. The first

Section of the wave signifies a down state, which is an inhibition

Or hyperpolarizing phase in which the neurons in the neocortex are



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Monoamine neurotransmitter

MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

That contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by

A two-carbon chain (-CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from

Aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine , tyrosine , tryptophan , and

The thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid

Decarboxylase enzymes . Monoaminergic systems, i.E., the networks of

Neurons that utilize monoamine neurotransmitters, are involved in the

Regulation of cognitive processes such as emotion, arousal, and

Certain types of memory. It has been found that monoamine

Neurotransmitters play an important role in the secretion and

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Production of neurotrophin-3 by astrocytes, a chemical which maintains

Neuron integrity and provides neurons with trophic support. Drugs

Used to increase (or reduce) the effect of monoamine are sometimes

Used to treat patients with psychiatric disorders, including

Depression , anxiety , and schizophrenia


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Chemicals that enable neurotransmission . They transmit signals across

A chemical synapse , such as a neuromuscular junction , from one

Neuron (nerve cell) to another target neuron, muscle cell , or gland

Cell . Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in

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Synapses into the synaptic cleft , where they are received by

Receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized

From simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids , which are

Readily available from the diet and only require a small number of

Biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role

In shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are

Unknown, but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely



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Organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that

Plays several important roles in the brain and body.Significado de anoxia it is an amine

Synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its

Precursor chemical

L-DOPA , which is synthesized in the brain and


Dopamine is also synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain , dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter —a chemical

Released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve

Cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways , one of

Which plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior . Most types of

Rewards increase the level of dopamine in the brain, and many

Addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity. Other brain

Dopamine pathways are involved in motor control and in controlling the

Release of various hormones


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Dopamine on:






Is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in

The brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter . The name

Noradrenaline, derived from latin roots meaning at/alongside the

Kidneys, is more commonly used in the united kingdom; in the united

States, norepinephrine, derived from greek roots having that same

Meaning, is usually preferred. Norepinephrine is also the

International nonproprietary name given to the drug . Regardless of

Which name is used for the substance itself, parts of the body that

Produce or are affected by it are referred to as NORADRENERGIC. In the brain, norepinephrine is produced in closely packed brain cell

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Neurons or nuclei that are small yet exert powerful effects on other

Brain areas. The most important of these nuclei is the locus coeruleus

, located in the pons


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