Michele papa università della campania luigi vanvitelli – academia.edu que es anoxia

ABSTRACT administration of methylphenidate (MPH, ritalin®) to children with attention deficit hyp… More ABSTRACT administration of methylphenidate (MPH, ritalin®) to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an elective therapy, but raises concerns for public health, due to possible persistent neurobehavioral alterations. Wistar adolescent rats (30 to 46 day old) were administered MPH or saline (SAL) for 16 days, and tested for reward-related and motivational-choice behaviors. When tested in adulthood in a drug-free state, MPH-pretreated animals showed increased choice flexibility and economical efficiency, as well as a dissociation between dampened place conditioning and more marked locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine, compared to SAL-pretreated controls.Que es anoxia


the striatal complex, a core component of the natural reward system, was collected both at the end of the MPH treatment and in adulthood. Genome-wide expression profiling, followed by RT-PCR validation on independent samples, showed that three members of the postsynaptic-density family and five neurotransmitter receptors were upregulated in the adolescent striatum after subchronic MPH administration. Interestingly, only genes for the kainate 2 subunit of ionotropic glutamate receptor (grik2, also known as KA2) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7 (htr7) (but not GABAA subunits and adrenergic receptor α1b) were still upregulated in adulthood. CAMP responsive element-binding protein and homer 1a transcripts were modulated only as a long-term effect.Que es anoxia in summary, our data indicate short-term changes in neural plasticity, suggested by modulation of expression of key genes, and functional changes in striatal circuits. These modifications might in turn trigger enduring changes responsible for the adult neurobehavioral profile, that is, altered processing of incentive values and a modified flexibility/habit balance.

La percezione cosciente della sensibilità cutanea e propriocettiva e del gusto dipendono dalle vi… More la percezione cosciente della sensibilità cutanea e propriocettiva e del gusto dipendono dalle vie di conduzione che connettono i recettori periferici con i centri a livello del diencefalo e del telencefalo. La maggior parte di queste connessioni, a eccezione delle vie per il gusto, è crociata.Que es anoxia L’elaborazione iniziale dell’informazione sensoriale avviene nel midollo spinale e nei nuclei delle colonne dorsali per le informazioni relative al tronco e alle estremità, e nei nuclei sensoriali del nervo trigemino per quelle della faccia. Il primo relè per il gusto è situato nel nucleo del tratto solitario nel segmento inferiore del tronco encefalico. Le vie di conduzione spinale sono costituite dal fascicolo anterolaterale e dalla via delle colonne dorsali-lemnisco mediale. Entrambi questi sistemi sono crociati. Le vie corrispondenti traggono origine dai nuclei sensoriali del nervo trigemino.

Reactive astrocytes and activated microglia are the key players in several pathophysiologic modif…Que es anoxia more reactive astrocytes and activated microglia are the key players in several pathophysiologic modifications of the central nervous system. We used the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve to induce glial maladaptive response in the ventral horn of lumbar spinal cord and examine its role in the remodeling of the tripartite synapse plasticity. Imaging the ventral horn revealed that SNI was associated with both an early microglial and astrocytic activation, assessed, respectively, by analysis of iba1 and GFAP expression. Microglia, in particular, localized peculiarly surrounding the motor neurons somata. Perineuronal astrocytes, which play a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal circuitry, underwent a substantial phenotypic change following peripheral axotomy, producing reactive gliosis.Que es anoxia the gliosis was associated with the reduction of glial aminoacid transporters (GLT1 and glyt1) and increase of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1. Although the expression of gabaergic neuronal marker GAD65/67 showed no change, glutamate increase, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis, shifted the excitatory/inhibitory balance as showed by the net increase of the glutamate/GABA ratio. Moreover, endogenous NGF levels were altered in SNI animals and not restored by the intrathecal NGF administration. This treatment reverted phenotypic changes associated with reactive astrocytosis, but failed to modify microglia activation. These findings on one hand confirm the correlation between gliopathy and maladaptive plasticity of the spinal synaptic circuitry, on the other hand add new data concerning the complex peculiar behavior of different glial cells in neuronal degenerative processes, defining a special role of microglia in sustaining the inflammatory response.Que es anoxia

Nel corso dell’ontogenesi, gli emisferi telencefalici evaginano bilateralmente dalla parte più do… More nel corso dell’ontogenesi, gli emisferi telencefalici evaginano bilateralmente dalla parte più dorsale della lamina alare del prosencefalo secondario (figg. 2.2C, 2.3C, 2.4, 2.5B, C). Esistono due principali divisioni degli emisferi telencefalici: il tetto o pallio e la base o sub pallio. Classicamente, il pallio è diviso in tre zone longitudinali, mediale, dorsale e laterale. Durante lo sviluppo, i neuroblasti migrano verso l’esterno dalla matrice ventricolare per partecipare alla formazione delle strutture corticali in tutte le zone del pallio. Il pallio mediale si sviluppa dando origine alla formazione ippocampale, nella quale, tra i due strati plessiformi, periventricolare e subpiale, è racchiuso un compatto strato di cellule.Que es anoxia una struttura a tre strati si forma anche nel pallio laterale. Qui riscontriamo uno strato molecolare superficiale, contenente un relativo scarso numero di cellule sparse, uno strato intermedio a elevata densità cellulare e uno strato profondo, che mostra una moderata densità cellulare. La formazione corticale, che si sviluppa dal pallio laterale, riceve proiezioni dirette dal bulbo olfattorio.

Prognostic determination of patients in coma after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is a common … More prognostic determination of patients in coma after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is a common and difficult requirement with significant ethical, social and legal implications. We set out to seek markers that can be used for the early detection of patients with a poor prognosis, so as to reduce uncertainty over treatment and non-treatment decisions, and to improve relationships with families.Que es anoxia we reviewed the medical literature from 1991 to 2010, using key words such as post-anoxic coma, post-anoxic vegetative state, vegetative state prognosis, recovery after cardiac arrest. Neurological examination, electrophysiology, imaging, and biochemical markers are all useful tools for estimating patients#39; chances of recovery from cardiac arrest. It seems unlikely that any single test will prove to have 100% predictive value for outcome; but the combination of various prognostic markers, as shown in some articles, could increase the reliability of outcome prediction. However, further re…

Recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns th…Que es anoxia more recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns that emerge with no task performance or sensory stimulation; these discoveries hold promise for the study of higher-order associative network functionality. Additionally, such advances are argued to be relevant in pathological states, such as disorders of consciousness (DOC), i.E., coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. Recent studies on resting state activity in DOC, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) techniques, show that functional connectivity is disrupted in the task-negative or the default mode network. However, the two main approaches employed in the analysis of resting state functional connectivity data (i.E., hypothesis-driven seed-voxel and data-driven independent component analysis) present multiple methodological difficulties, especially in non-collaborative DOC patients.Que es anoxia improvements in motion artifact removal and spatial normalization are nee…

ABSTRACT administration of methylphenidate (MPH, ritalin®) to children with attention deficit hyp… More ABSTRACT administration of methylphenidate (MPH, ritalin®) to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an elective therapy, but raises concerns for public health, due to possible persistent neurobehavioral alterations. Wistar adolescent rats (30 to 46 day old) were administered MPH or saline (SAL) for 16 days, and tested for reward-related and motivational-choice behaviors. When tested in adulthood in a drug-free state, MPH-pretreated animals showed increased choice flexibility and economical efficiency, as well as a dissociation between dampened place conditioning and more marked locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine, compared to SAL-pretreated controls.Que es anoxia the striatal complex, a core component of the natural reward system, was collected both at the end of the MPH treatment and in adulthood. Genome-wide expression profiling, followed by RT-PCR validation on independent samples, showed that three members of the postsynaptic-density family and five neurotransmitter receptors were upregulated in the adolescent striatum after subchronic MPH administration. Interestingly, only genes for the kainate 2 subunit of ionotropic glutamate receptor (grik2, also known as KA2) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7 (htr7) (but not GABAA subunits and adrenergic receptor α1b) were still upregulated in adulthood. CAMP responsive element-binding protein and homer 1a transcripts were modulated only as a long-term effect.Que es anoxia in summary, our data indicate short-term changes in neural plasticity, suggested by modulation of expression of key genes, and functional changes in striatal circuits. These modifications might in turn trigger enduring changes responsible for the adult neurobehavioral profile, that is, altered processing of incentive values and a modified flexibility/habit balance.

La percezione cosciente della sensibilità cutanea e propriocettiva e del gusto dipendono dalle vi… More la percezione cosciente della sensibilità cutanea e propriocettiva e del gusto dipendono dalle vie di conduzione che connettono i recettori periferici con i centri a livello del diencefalo e del telencefalo. La maggior parte di queste connessioni, a eccezione delle vie per il gusto, è crociata.Que es anoxia L’elaborazione iniziale dell’informazione sensoriale avviene nel midollo spinale e nei nuclei delle colonne dorsali per le informazioni relative al tronco e alle estremità, e nei nuclei sensoriali del nervo trigemino per quelle della faccia. Il primo relè per il gusto è situato nel nucleo del tratto solitario nel segmento inferiore del tronco encefalico. Le vie di conduzione spinale sono costituite dal fascicolo anterolaterale e dalla via delle colonne dorsali-lemnisco mediale. Entrambi questi sistemi sono crociati. Le vie corrispondenti traggono origine dai nuclei sensoriali del nervo trigemino.

Reactive astrocytes and activated microglia are the key players in several pathophysiologic modif…Que es anoxia more reactive astrocytes and activated microglia are the key players in several pathophysiologic modifications of the central nervous system. We used the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve to induce glial maladaptive response in the ventral horn of lumbar spinal cord and examine its role in the remodeling of the tripartite synapse plasticity. Imaging the ventral horn revealed that SNI was associated with both an early microglial and astrocytic activation, assessed, respectively, by analysis of iba1 and GFAP expression. Microglia, in particular, localized peculiarly surrounding the motor neurons somata. Perineuronal astrocytes, which play a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal circuitry, underwent a substantial phenotypic change following peripheral axotomy, producing reactive gliosis.Que es anoxia the gliosis was associated with the reduction of glial aminoacid transporters (GLT1 and glyt1) and increase of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1. Although the expression of gabaergic neuronal marker GAD65/67 showed no change, glutamate increase, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis, shifted the excitatory/inhibitory balance as showed by the net increase of the glutamate/GABA ratio. Moreover, endogenous NGF levels were altered in SNI animals and not restored by the intrathecal NGF administration. This treatment reverted phenotypic changes associated with reactive astrocytosis, but failed to modify microglia activation. These findings on one hand confirm the correlation between gliopathy and maladaptive plasticity of the spinal synaptic circuitry, on the other hand add new data concerning the complex peculiar behavior of different glial cells in neuronal degenerative processes, defining a special role of microglia in sustaining the inflammatory response.Que es anoxia

Nel corso dell’ontogenesi, gli emisferi telencefalici evaginano bilateralmente dalla parte più do… More nel corso dell’ontogenesi, gli emisferi telencefalici evaginano bilateralmente dalla parte più dorsale della lamina alare del prosencefalo secondario (figg. 2.2C, 2.3C, 2.4, 2.5B, C). Esistono due principali divisioni degli emisferi telencefalici: il tetto o pallio e la base o sub pallio. Classicamente, il pallio è diviso in tre zone longitudinali, mediale, dorsale e laterale. Durante lo sviluppo, i neuroblasti migrano verso l’esterno dalla matrice ventricolare per partecipare alla formazione delle strutture corticali in tutte le zone del pallio. Il pallio mediale si sviluppa dando origine alla formazione ippocampale, nella quale, tra i due strati plessiformi, periventricolare e subpiale, è racchiuso un compatto strato di cellule.Que es anoxia una struttura a tre strati si forma anche nel pallio laterale. Qui riscontriamo uno strato molecolare superficiale, contenente un relativo scarso numero di cellule sparse, uno strato intermedio a elevata densità cellulare e uno strato profondo, che mostra una moderata densità cellulare. La formazione corticale, che si sviluppa dal pallio laterale, riceve proiezioni dirette dal bulbo olfattorio.

Prognostic determination of patients in coma after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is a common … More prognostic determination of patients in coma after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is a common and difficult requirement with significant ethical, social and legal implications. We set out to seek markers that can be used for the early detection of patients with a poor prognosis, so as to reduce uncertainty over treatment and non-treatment decisions, and to improve relationships with families.Que es anoxia we reviewed the medical literature from 1991 to 2010, using key words such as post-anoxic coma, post-anoxic vegetative state, vegetative state prognosis, recovery after cardiac arrest. Neurological examination, electrophysiology, imaging, and biochemical markers are all useful tools for estimating patients#39; chances of recovery from cardiac arrest. It seems unlikely that any single test will prove to have 100% predictive value for outcome; but the combination of various prognostic markers, as shown in some articles, could increase the reliability of outcome prediction. However, further re…

Recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns th…Que es anoxia more recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns that emerge with no task performance or sensory stimulation; these discoveries hold promise for the study of higher-order associative network functionality. Additionally, such advances are argued to be relevant in pathological states, such as disorders of consciousness (DOC), i.E., coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. Recent studies on resting state activity in DOC, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) techniques, show that functional connectivity is disrupted in the task-negative or the default mode network. However, the two main approaches employed in the analysis of resting state functional connectivity data (i.E., hypothesis-driven seed-voxel and data-driven independent component analysis) present multiple methodological difficulties, especially in non-collaborative DOC patients.Que es anoxia improvements in motion artifact removal and spatial normalization are nee…