Mental status changes anoxia symptoms

I. SOME DEFINITIONS

Coma: a state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused, even by powerful stimuli. Traumatic brain injuries are the most frequent cause; other causes include severe uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, liver disease, kidney disease, and neurologic conditions

Dementia: a general loss of mental abilities, including impairment of memory and often impairments in speech, coordination, ability to understand sensory stimuli, and other mental faculties. Many different conditions can cause dementia; some are reversible and some are progressive with widespread damage in the brain


Delirium: is an acute and debilitating decline in the ability to focus attention, perception, and cognition that produces an altered form of semi-consciousness.Anoxia symptoms it is a systemic syndrome caused by a chemical or disease-process which is disrupting the neurons of the cerebral cortex. Though hallucinations and delusions are often present, the symptoms of delirium are clinically distinct from those induced by psychosis or hallucinogens.

Stroke syndrom: a symptom complex caused by a disorder of the blood vessels serving the brain, with impaired blood supply and ischemia. Symptoms depend on the brain area affected, and may include paralysis either on one entire side of the body or of a less complete area, vertigo, numbness, and aphasia. There are four different events related to this condition: transient ischemic attack, reversible ischemic neurologic deficit, stroke in evolution, and completed stroke.Anoxia symptoms persons most at risk for stroke include those with hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and other cardiovascular disorders. Obese persons, heavy smokers, and those with diabetes mellitus are also at increased risk. The three main causes of stroke syndrome, all associated with cerebral infarction (a necrotic area in the brain tissue), are cerebral embolism, cerebral thrombosis, and cerebral hemorrhage. Strokelike symptoms may also be caused by compression of cerebral vessels (such as by a tumor or edema) and by arterial spasm. Called also stroke and cerebral vascular or cerebrovascular accident.

Mental status: , describes induced changes in one’s mental state, almost always temporary, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking beta wave state

anoxia symptoms

II. Etiology

Factors: alcohol, drugs, stress, tobacco, stimulant, diseases / disorders, injury

Causes:

1. Toxic: overdose drugs, alcohol

Drugs: opiod, sedatives, hypnotics, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, psychiactive substances, …

2. Metabolism: (acidose, hyper CO2, hypo O2, hypoglycemia, hyperuremia, …

3. Neurologic (genetic disorder; congenital abnormality or disorder, functional neurological deficit; infections; lifestyle or environmental health problems including malnutrition; and brain injury, spinal cord injury or nerve injury, idiopathic,…)

4. Infection: bacteria, virus, funga

HISTORY TAKING:

– medications (used, treatment, kind, quantity, …)

– neurologic disorders http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/neurologic_disorder

anoxia symptoms

– psychiatric disorders http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/psychiatric_disorder

– alcohol used

– brain, nerve injury

EXAMINATION:

– vital signs

– searching for sites of infection

– a complete cardiopulmonary examination

– detailed neurologic examination http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/neurological_examination

– mental status evaluation. Http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/mental_state_examination

TESTS:

Depending on causes (get from history exam)

(washington manual of medical therapeutics)

I. Definition:

A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.

A neurological disorder is a disorder of the body’s nervous system

anoxia symptoms

II. Neurological examination

1. History: most important part, include:

• time of onset, duration and associated symptoms (e.G. Is the complaint chronic or acute)

• age, sex and occupation of the patient

• handedness (right or left handed)

• past medical history

• drug history

• family and social history

2. Central nervous system

• the assessment of consciousness, often using the glasgow coma scale (EMV)

• mental status examination, often including the abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) or mini mental state examination (MMSE)

• global assessment of higher functions

• intracranial pressure is roughly estimated by fundoscopy; this also enables assessment for microvascular disease.

3. Peripheral nervous system

anoxia symptoms

• cranial nerves (I-XII): e.G. The visual acuity can be tested by a snellen chart.

• reflexes: masseter, biceps and triceps tendon, knee tendon, ankle jerk and plantar (i.E. Babinski sign).

• muscle strength, often graded on the MRC scale 1 to 5 (or I to V).

• sensory systems are rarely tested but they control the sensations of fine touch, pain and temperature.

• muscle tone and signs of rigidity.

III. Neurological disorder

1. Causes: genetic disorder; congenital abnormality or disorder; infections; lifestyle or environmental health problems including malnutrition; and brain injury, spinal cord injury or nerve injury.

2. Classification: central nervous system (CNS) disorder and peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorder

anoxia symptoms

Following the merck manual:

• brain:

• brain damage according to cerebral lobe

• brain dysfunction according to type:

• aphasia (language)

• dysarthria (speech)

• apraxia (patterns or sequences of movements)

• agnosia (identifying things/people)

• amnesia (memory)

• spinal cord disorders

• peripheral nervous system disorders

• cranial nerve disorders

• autonomic nervous system disorders

• seizure disorders such as epilepsy

• movement disorders such as parkinson disease

• sleep disorders

• headaches (including migraine)

• low back and neck pain (see back pain)

• other pain (see neuropathic pain)

• delirium and dementia such as alzheimer disease

• etc….

P/S: to hoanganh:

Working with you is exciting. I will do the best that I can.Anoxia symptoms thanks for all things.

Agitation (dá» cã¡u gắt)

Is an unpleasant state of extreme arousal, increased tension, and irritability

Anxiety (lo lắng)

Fear or apprehension or dread of impending danger and accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.

Alzheimer disease

A progressive degenerative disease of the brain that causes impairment of memory and dementia manifested by confusion, visual-spatial disorientation, impairment of language function progressing from anomia to fluent aphasia, inability to calculate, and deterioration of judgment; delusions and hallucinations may occur. The most common degenerative brain disorder, AD makes up 70% of all cases of dementia.Anoxia symptoms onset is usually in late middle life, and death typically ensues in 5–10 years.

Synonym(s): alzheimer dementia

Dementia

The loss, usually progressive, of cognitive and intellectual functions, without impairment of perception or consciousness; caused by a variety of disorders, (structural or degenerative) but most commonly associated with structural brain disease. Characterized by disorientation, impaired memory, judgment, and intellect, and a shallow labile affect.

Synonym(s): amentia

Depression (trầm cảm)

A temporary mental state or chronic mental disorder characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach; accompanying signs include psychomotor retardation or less frequently agitation, withdrawal from social contact, and vegetative states such as loss of appetite and insomnia.Anoxia symptoms syn: dejection(1), depressive reaction, depressive syndrome

Stupor (ngẩn ngæ¡, đờ đẫn)

A state of impaired consciousness in which the individual shows a marked diminution in reactivity to environmental stimuli and can be aroused only by continual stimulation.

Agnosia (mất nhận thức)

Impairment of ability to recognize, or comprehend the meaning of, various sensory stimuli, not attributable to disorders of the primary receptors or general intellect; agnosias are receptive defects caused by lesions in various portions of the cerebrum. Syn: agnea.

Delirium (m㪠sảng)

An altered state of consciousness, consisting of confusion, distractibility, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, defective perception (illusions and hallucinations), prominent hyperactivity, agitation, and autonomic nervous system overactivity; caused by illness, medication, or toxic, structural, and metabolic disorders

anoxia symptoms

Nervous (cäƒng thẳng)

2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or emotional instability; tense or anxious.

3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.

Amnesia (chứng quãªn)

A disturbance in the memory of information stored in long-term memory, in contrast to short-term memory, manifested by total or partial inability to recall past experiences.

Psychosis (rối loạn tã¢m thần)

A mental and behavioral disorder causing gross distortion or disorganization of a person’s mental capacity, affective response, and capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others to the degree of interfering with that person’s capacity to cope with the ordinary demands of everyday life.Anoxia symptoms the psychoses are divided into two major classifications according to their origins: those associated with organic brain syndromes (korsakoff syndrome); and those less clearly organic and having some functional component(s) (the schizophrenias, bipolar disorder).

Delusion (ảo tæ°á»Ÿng)

A false belief or wrong judgment held with conviction despite incontrovertible evidence to the contrary.

Illusion (ảo giã¡c)

A false perception; the mistaking of something for what it is not.

Hallucination (ảo giã¡c)

The apparent, often strong subjective perception of an object or event when no such stimulus or situation is present; may be visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile.

Paranoia (hoang tæ°á»Ÿng)

anoxia symptoms

A severe but relatively rare mental disorder characterized by the presence of systematized delusions, often of a persecutory character involving being followed, poisoned, or harmed by other means, in an otherwise intact personality. See also: paranoid personality.

Schizophrenia (tã¢m thần phã¢n liệt)

A term coined by bleuler, synonymous with and replacing dementia praecox; a common type of psychosis, characterized by abnormalities in perception, content of thought, and thought processes (hallucinations and delusions) and by extensive withdrawal of interest from other people and the outside world, with excessive focusing on one’s own mental life; now considered a group or spectrum of disorders rather than a single entity, with distinction sometimes made between process schizophrenia and reactive schizophrenia.Anoxia symptoms

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P.S: to mickey and all mems group 4, thanks for your cooperation, hope that we’ll work well, study well together.

1. Definition:

A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture.

2. Classification:

2.1. Anxiety or fear (specific phobias, anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder)

2.2. Mood disorder (intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, despair, depression, bipolar disorder).

2.3. Patterns of belief, language use and perception disorder (delusions, thought disorder, hallucinations).Anoxia symptoms

2.4. Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, and delusional disorder)

2.5. Personality – emotional (antisocial, borderline, histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive personality disorders).

2.6. Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, exercise bulimia or binge eating disorder).

2.7. Sleep disorders (insomnia)

2.8. Sexual and gender identity disorders (dyspareunia, gender identity disorder and ego-dystonic homosexuality).

2.9. Addictions (gambling, drug, alcohol addiction)

2.10. Substance dependence / substance abuse: (a broader category than drug abuse).

2.11. Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder, or split personality).Anoxia symptoms

2.12. Memory or cognitive disorders (amnesia, old age dementia)

2.13 somatoform disorders (including somatization disorder and conversion disorder). There are also disorders of the perception of the body, including body dysmorphic disorder. Neurasthenia is an old diagnosis involving somatic complaints as well as fatigue and low spirits/depression, which is officially recognized by the ICD-10 but no longer by the DSM-IV.[10]

2.14. Conduct disorder

2.15 factitious disorders

3. Examination:

– mental status examination ( MSE): is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice. It is a structured way of observing and describing a patient’s current state of mind, under the domains of appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought process, thought content, perception, cognition, insight and judgement.Anoxia symptoms

Detail here: http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/mental_state_examination

– mini-mental state examination ( MMSE) or folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to screen for cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine to screen for dementia. It is also used to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment at a given point in time and to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, thus making it an effective way to document an individual’s response to treatment.

Detail here: http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/mini-me…Te_examination

– the abbreviated mental test score ( AMTS) rapidly assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia. Its uses in medicine have become somewhat wider, e.G.Anoxia symptoms to assess for confusion and other cognitive impairment, although it has mainly been validated in the elderly.

Detail here: http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/abbrevi…Tal_test_score

Source : wikipedia

Http://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/psychiatric_disorder

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Thanks for your concern

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