Learning disabled (ld) children – ves teacher training brain anoxia

Some children, who in most ways seem normal, have difficulty in learning or remembering. They have difficulty in educational performance: copying, writing, listening, understanding, number speech and communication.

Who is learning disabled child?

The enigma of the youngster who has difficulty in learning is not new. But the concept of learning disability has a brief and turbulent history. Some children are quite normal and yet at all times display learning problems. They write ‘deb’ for ‘bed’, ‘was’ for ‘saw’ and cannot concentrate if there is background noise. The early childhood care and education defined learning disability as follows:


“LD children exhibit disorder in one or more basic psychological process involved in understanding and in using spoken or written languages.Brain anoxia the disorders are manifested in listening, thinking, talking, reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic. They include conditions which are referred to as perceptual problems, brain injury, minimal brain, dysfunction, dyslexia, etc. They do not include learning problems which are primarily due to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or the environmental disadvantage”.

Learning disability is an interdisciplinary field and the above definition of learning disabled children was acceptable to professionals.

Prevalence:

A more conservative estimate has been made by the national advisory committee on handicapped children. It reports that two to three per cent of the school populations are learning disabled.Brain anoxia in india one does nothave accrual estimates but it may not be far away from the world estimate.

Causes:

According to the teacher training programmes, the causes of learning disability could be organized under organic environmental and genetic.

Organic:

LD arises because of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). The dysfunction occurs in central nervous system which consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The malfunctioning is not due to damage, but due to dysfunction which is only minimal. Minimal brain dysfunction arises due to (a) cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral disease because of high fever, head injury, (b) anoxia, physical trauma, (c) constitutional genetic neurochemical dysfunction. It must be noted that all brain dysfunctions are not associated with learning disability and all types of learning disability do not arise due to brain dysfunction.Brain anoxia

Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar is a cause of learning problem. Any factor that can cause neurological damage can cause learning problems.

Genetic:

Learning problems and hyperactivity run in families. Nearly 20% of hyperactive children had one parent hyperactive. Children with turner’s syndrome have higher incidence of learning disabilities.

Environmental:

Maternal factors known to have a negative effect include the use of drugs, the consumption of alcohol and contraction of rubella. Complications during pregnancy such as anoxia (loss of oxygen), birth injury causing brain damage in children who received neonatal intensive care subsequently become LD. Learning disability may be caused due to insufficient early experience and stimulation.Brain anoxia it is also caused by poor or inadequate instruction.

Language:

LD children have difficulty both in expressive and receptive language, and relatively more in case of the former. LD children do not have so much of phonological or articulation problems but do show problem in sentence formation i.E.; syntax. They do show difficulty in comprehension of meaning and use of pronouns. They have difficulties in understanding and using passive tense, negatives, contractions and past tense, adjectives and adverbs. They fail to maintain conversation and cannot argue or ask appropriate questions. So far as written language is concerned they do have problems in handwriting, spelling and punctuation. LD children have more of spelling errors than their non-learning disabled peers even when IQ were controlled.Brain anoxia