Joshua luke burton university of adelaide, adelaide on researchgate expertise neurosurgery, neurology, pathology anoxic brain injury recovery

The current study investigated whether adding magnesium to an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist after traumatic brain injury would enhance efficacy to further reduce blood-brain barrier permeability and improve functional recovery compared to either treatment alone. Sprague-dawley rats were injured using the impact acceleration model of diffuse brain injury, and received either no treatment, mgso4 (30 mg/kg IV), the NK1 antagonist n-acetyl L tryptophan (2.5 mg/kg IP), or both agents combined. Animals were then killed at either 1, 5, or 24 h postinjury for determination of blood-brain barrier permeability using previously administered evans blue dye or assessed for functional outcome over a 1-week period using the rotarod motor test.Anoxic brain injury recovery

as expected, both mgso4 and n-acetyl L tryptophan significantly reduced blood-brain barrier permeability and improved functional outcome. However, combined n-acetyl L tryptophan and mgso4 was more effective at reducing blood-brain barrier permeability (P 0.05) and improving functional outcome (P 0.001) compared to the individual compounds. Our results demonstrate that combination therapy with magnesium and an NK1 antagonist may be a more effective therapy for TBI than either compound administered alone.

Since the discovery of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) as a water channel, many studies have revealed the importance of aquaporins in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology.

Written by an international group of contributors at the forefront of the field, aquaporins in health and disease: new molecular targets for drug discovery presents the latest research advances in aquaporins and other major intrinsic protein (MIP) channels.Anoxic brain injury recovery the first section of the book describes the general concepts of aquaporin channel function, genomic research, structure-function analysis of aquaporins and glycerol facilitators, and regulation by gating and trafficking. The second section discusses the physiological and pathophysiological roles of aquaporins in humans. The final section covers the development of inhibitors of aquaporin function. The book’s epilogue offers future perspectives and directions, mainly in the area of aquaporin-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

Stimulating future research on this important protein family, this book facilitates a paradigm shift in the understanding and roles of aquaporin membrane proteins in all biological settings.Anoxic brain injury recovery it encourages scientists to develop novel approaches for the treatment of human diseases based on aquaporin function or dysfunction.

Health science and medical students traditionally struggle with the topic of the cranial nerves as it involves integrating knowledge of complex, three-dimensional neuroanatomical circuitry with the physiological function and the pathological consequences of damage of twelve distinct cranial nerves. Recently, there has been increased focus on developing digital/online teaching resources to help resolve these difficulties. Unfortunately, many resources, not developed by experts in the field, are anatomically incorrect ((berry, parker-jones et al. 1998)berry et al. 1998; hamza-lup et al. 2009) or are not interactive ((kim, brinkley et al. 2003)kim et al. 2003).Anoxic brain injury recovery other such electronic resources focus in depth on individual brain areas, losing the critical 3D aspect of the circuitry and its integration with other key components of the body as a whole (kim et al. 2003). Additionally, many of these resources cannot be tangibly manipulated (estevez et al. 2010) or are entirely self-directed on the student’s part, making it difficult for them to know how to proceed or easy for them to lose focus (hamza-lup et al. 2009). The aim of the current study was to improve upon existing teaching resources in the field by developing an anatomically correct, directed resource on the cranial nerves that is also visually stimulating and engaging.

The cranial nerves resource prototype was developed through in-house creation/manipulation of anatomically accurate 3D models (autodesk 3DS max), before exporting the relevant components and embedding them, coupled with appropriate teaching material, into a prezi presentation platform.Anoxic brain injury recovery the resource was then deployed in a third year integrative and comparative neuroanatomy course. Following completion of the course, students were administered a brief, anonymous survey (10 item, 7-point likert-scale, with space for free comments) in which they were asked questions related to their attitudes towards the resource and whether they believed that the resource increased their knowledge of the material.

36 out of 50 (72%) students in the course completed the questionnaire, with 74% broad agreement (BA) that the cranial nerves are a difficult and challenging neuroanatomy topic. 15/36 (42%) students reported that they had used the cranial nerves resource. The main reason given for non-use was inability to open the resource on a mac computer.Anoxic brain injury recovery of those that used the resource there was only 57% (BA) that the resource was easy to use, highlighting a need for more user-friendliness. Nevertheless, there was 86-93% BA that the resource was useful with 71% BA that the resource improved learning of the material. Furthermore, there was 86-93% BA that the resource improved understanding of the cranial nerves. The aspects of the resource that were particularly useful were the visual layout and 3-D nature of the images (93% BA). The vast majority of students (86% BA) agreed that the resource should be utilized in future years and that additional resources should be developed for other neuroanatomy topics (93% BA).

Of the 43 students enrolled in the course, 24 (51%) reported that they had used the cranial nerves resource. [results summary].Anoxic brain injury recovery

Taken together, thhe results of the current study suggest that, while more students need to be encouraged to use the resource, the students who did engage with the tool thought that it was helpful and would like to see additional similar resources developed. Since self-selection bias may influence these findings, further work is needed to investigate the degree to which the resource actually improves learning outcomes and enhances student engagement.

Berry, E., C. Parker-jones, et al. (1998). Systematic assessment of world wide web materials for medical education: online, cooperative peer review. J am med inform assoc 5(4): 382-389.

Hamza-lup, F.G., thompson, T et al (2009) interactive 3D web-based environments for online learning: case studies, technologies and challenges.Anoxic brain injury recovery mobile, hybrid, and on-line learning, 2009. ELML ’09.International conference on digital object identifier, pp. 13 – 18.

Kim, S., J. F. Brinkley, et al. (2003). Profile of on-line anatomy information resources: design and instructional implications. Clin anat 16(1): 55-71.

[conclusion] in the present thesis, I have shown that single administration of an AQP4 1 antagonist at 5 h, an AQP4 agonist at 48 h and the sequential treatment with both of the compounds at their optimal time points is beneficial to physiological and functional outcome following diffuse TBI. At a physiological level there was an attenuation of post traumatic cerebral oedema and of brain albumin content, with these beneficial effects occurring in the absence of any changes in water channel expression.Anoxic brain injury recovery functionally, each compound improved functional motor outcome after TBI when they were administered at their optimal time point. Sequential treatment with both compounds proved even more efficacious than single interventions. The sequential treatment with the antagonist and then the agonist augmented what seemed to be a protective response of the brain against posttraumatic oedema, namely an initial downregulation of AQP channels followed by a later upregulation. This alteration in expression was mimicked by initial inhibition with the antagonist followed by facilitation of water transport during the resolution phase of oedema. Taken together these results provide evidence in favour of a pharmaceutical treatment for the attenuation of injury-induced brain swelling, which when administered at the optimal time points may deliver a much needed novel, therapeutic intervention for this life threatening condition.Anoxic brain injury recovery

An interventional cohort comparison study with pretesting and post-testing in semesters 1 and 2 was undertaken of 159 medical students in year 3 of the MMBS course at the university of adelaide in 2010. The intervention comprised the provision of a number of additional online resources in semester 2. Students’ views on online anatomy were also sought by a questionnaire delivered at the end of semesters 1 and 2 and via a small focus group at the end of the study. Anatomy assessment results after the introduction of online anatomy were compared with a total of three control semesters in 2009 and 2010. There was 90% broad agreement before the intervention that wet specimens, tutors and discussions with other students helped students learn anatomy.Anoxic brain injury recovery after the intervention, these views remained, but there was additionally 90% broad agreement that text books helped them learn anatomy, that they had good access to anatomical specimens, and there was less agreement that lectures helped. The intervention left students’ views on online anatomy largely unchanged and made no significant difference to summative assessment scores. Focus group discussions revealed that students want anatomy tutors to help direct them to reputable and relevant sites. The provision of more online resources in anatomy did not affect student views or learning outcomes. While students may need help from tutors in selecting appropriate online resources, wet specimens, textbooks, and discussions with tutors and other students remain the preferred means of learning anatomy.Anoxic brain injury recovery clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 wiley periodicals, inc.