Dysgraphia and dysorthographia types, treatment, exercises for the correction with the video anoxic brain injury recovery

Dysgraphia and dysorthographia: types, treatment, exercises for the correction with the video

Dysorthographia, dysgraphia, dyslexia: causes, symptoms, correction

Dysorthographia – the child’s lack of ability to develop knowledge of spelling skills and abilities associated with it. This violation is associated with insufficient development of language functions, visual and auditory attention and perception, memory and thinking. This disorder has been insufficiently studied, in contrast to dysgraphia.

Dysgraphia – a violation of written speech, which is caused by the disruption of mental processes and analyzers responsible for the development of writing.

Both disorders are separate and independent from each other.Anoxic brain injury recovery however, quite often they can occur together in one patient. Factors provocateurs

The development of dysorthographia and dysgraphia occurs for various reasons, but some factors may coincide. The appearance of violations of written speech may be associated with various injuries and a lack of development of parts of the brain due to negative factors in the period of carrying a child and in birth and postnatal period.

Such reasons include:

• pregnancy with the presence of pathologies and diseases;

• lack of oxygen to the baby during childbirth;

• birth injuries of the newborn;

• encephalitis;

• meningitis;

• the disease caused by infections;

• diseases of somatic nature.

These disorders are associated with disrupted brain development and injury of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and basal nuclei.Anoxic brain injury recovery these areas are responsible for the correct functioning of working memory.

The correct development of the skill of the letters is impossible without a correctly formed speech, possession vocabulary and grammatical aspects of speech, possession of skills of perception and pronunciation of sounds. Violation of these processes occurs when there are abnormalities of the vocal apparatus and the reasons of organic origin.

To development violations of the letter the child can also cause social and psychological factors:

• bilingual family (bilingual);

• impaired speech or wrong speech of other people;

• the lack of verbal communication;

• the lack of attention of adults to the child’s speech;

• too early learning.Anoxic brain injury recovery

The most commonly dysgraphia and dysorthographia observed in younger schoolchildren with speech disorders, mental retardation, and a constitutional predisposition to it.

The occurrence of these disorders in adulthood may be a consequence of neurosurgical surgery, stroke, traumatic brain injury, neoplastic growths in the brain.

Classification of violations of written speech

There are the following types of dysgraphia:• articulatory and acoustic. In this type of violation, the child writes the words exactly as and pronounces them. This problem occurs because of incorrect pronunciation of sounds, and further playback of mistakes in the letter.

• acoustic. The child having difficulties with the differentiation of sounds by ear.Anoxic brain injury recovery therefore, the letter it replaces the proper letters to those who hear. While the child has no difficulty with the correct pronunciation of these sounds.

• dysgraphia, is caused by violation of ability to the analysis and synthesis of linguistic material. The child have any difficulty with the allocation in the speech stream of individual words and further splitting them into sounds and syllables.

• optical. Due to a reduced ability to recognize previously seen, and the ability to analyze and synthesize the information in written assignments distorts and replaces the letters.

• grammaticheskaya. When written assignments the child have any difficulty with the identification of linguistic and logical relationships between words, phrases and sentences.Anoxic brain injury recovery writing an essay may be accompanied by such errors: not matching a sequence of sentences described events, the lack of grammatical and semantic relationships between some sentences.

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There are several types of dysorthographia:• morphological. A child commits a significant amount of spelling errors, in the performance of independent written tasks (summaries, essays).

• syntax. The child manifests an inability to learn different syntax rules, for example – punctuation.

• combined. The child in the written assignments of the observed systematic punctuation and spelling errors.

There is also a classification of dysorthographia, which is based on the severity of the violation:• easy.Anoxic brain injury recovery son manages more than half of the suggested activities above average, and the remaining volume of jobs on average, or low level.

• average. Student can perform most of the suggested activities at the secondary level.

• heavy. The child performs all tasks below average, or low.

Clinical manifestations

Dysgraphia symptoms depend on the type of violations:

• at the articulatory and acoustic form of disease, the child misses letters, skips sounds when speaking, replace the letters;

• acoustic dysgraphia characterized by the fact that the substitution of letters, replacing the stressed vowels, double consonants, — the child cannot identify hard and soft consonants in writing;

• in case of violation, which develops due to violations of the ability to the synthesis and analysis of linguistic material, characteristic manifestations are not the end words in the letter, the movement of letters within a word, the merging of multiple words into one, add unnecessary letters.Anoxic brain injury recovery

• when the optical form of abuse, the child replaces some handwritten letters on the other, outwardly similar, replaces the letters that have a different number of the same elements, may also be writing letters in mirror projection, unfinished writing letters.

• for grammaticheskogo the type of disorder typical of such errors are: violation of the structure of words, the replacement of suffixes and prefixes, failure to comply with case inflection, the lack of alignment between words in the sentence, skipping, or replacement of prepositions, the distortion of a sequence of words.

Dysorthographia is manifested by such symptoms:

• the inability to remember the concept of «word», «sound», «syllable»;

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• the difficulty in mastering the rules of spelling (happens more slowly than other students);

• the lack of skill to make inferences, to determine the sequence of actions when performing written tasks in the language;

• bringing wrong examples of learned rules;

• lack of understanding of grammatical features of orfogramm;

• difficulties with tasks on the selection of related words, parsing words into component morphemes;

• the failure of the execution of tasks on a self-test.

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Dysgraphia – a fairly common violation. In elementary school, the signs of this disorder can occur in approximately half of the children.Anoxic brain injury recovery

To high school the number of students becomes smaller. Perhaps this prevalence of disorder is related to the fact that a significant number of children enter the school with general speech underdevelopment and incompleteness of the processes of pronunciation and perception of phonemes. These problems significantly hinder the mastery of the skill of literate writing.

The skill of writing is inextricably linked to reading skills. So quite often, the violation letter is combined with dyslexia and alexia.

Dyslexia – a partial violation of the ability to learn reading skills. Alexia – the inability to learn the process of reading because of the violation of individual sections of the cerebral cortex (or partial reading for the same reason).Anoxic brain injury recovery

Dysgraphia is also often coexists with disorders such as attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, there is. What is dyslexia

Dyslexia is a violation of the mental development of children with normal intellectual development. In this disorder the skills of reading and writing are acquired with difficulty.

Dyslexia — a general name for disorders of formation of skill of reading and writing. This term includes disorders such as dysgraphia and dyslexia.

Characteristic signs of this disorder:

• changing places of numbers and letters when writing and reading;

• multiple errors in written assignments;

• difficulty reading texts;

• tear words the pronunciation (swallow finish).

Diagnostic criteria

For the production of a correct diagnosis is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey.Anoxic brain injury recovery as violation of the letter may be caused by abnormalities in the auditory and visual systems, the survey should include consultation with ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist. To identify the organic causes of disorders of the letter can examination by a neurologist.

Speech therapy the study will determine the level of the speech function of the child. A speech therapist diagnoses speech writing by analyzing and studying his written works. This test helps to share the frustration of writing and a simple lack of knowledge. Next, you need to pay attention to the motor skills of speech and movement, structure of the vocal apparatus, to define left handed or right handed child.

During the examination it is necessary to consider the nervous system of the child, the absence or presence of disorders of sight and hearing.Anoxic brain injury recovery

Logopedic examination includes a study of the ability to the synthesis and analysis of sounds, the ability to differentiate sounds by hearing you say them to determine the structure of the word. It is also necessary to evaluate the construction of speech from the point of view of grammar and vocabulary.

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Written tests for the identification of dysgraphia and dysorthographia include writing vocabulary and text dictations, transcribing printed and handwritten text, cataloguing the drawing. Also used the job as reading of individual syllables, syllables and entire texts. Treatment and correction

Treatment of dysgraphia and dysorthographia should be aimed at addressing the root causes of violations and the correction of writing skills.Anoxic brain injury recovery

To treat the underlying disease, the neurologist prescribes pharmaceuticals and passing a course of rehabilitation therapy, which may include therapeutic exercise, massage, hydrotherapy and physiotherapy methods. Correction of violations conducted by the speech therapist.

Apply techniques aimed at:

• developing the skill to recognize the characters visually;

• learning to produce a synthesis and analysis (comparison);

• the development of visual, verbal and auditory memory;

• teaching pronunciation of sounds and the understanding of phonemic processes;

• building skills to recognise and perform operations with the objects visually and in space;

• learning the morphological principle, the syntactic order of speech;

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• the enrichment of vocabulary;

• the formation of coherent speech and the «sense of language».

Exercise and a special notebook for the correction of dysgraphia in primary school:

Violation letters are often not take place without external assistance it. For successful correction of disorders need the help of specialists (neurologist, speech therapist and pedagogue), and promoting the patient’s parents, or the adult patient.

These violations are often associated with deviations in the functioning areas of the brain, so successful result of therapy is achieved when the participation of a neurologist and in compliance with its recommendations.

Correction of violations letter shall be made with the assistance of parents and other adults around the child.Anoxic brain injury recovery the success of therapy largely depends on the social environment of the patient and its impact on him.

A positive result for remedial work will depend on the development of higher mental functions of the child. They largely affect the process of acquisition of skills in reading and writing.