Diagnosis bioethics research library brain anoxia

Regardless of the legal judgment that abortion deserves in different countries, any action that may induce or facilitate abortion is ethically unacceptable.

In 2012, a technique was developed that enabled the foetal genome to be determined in the first trimester of pregnancy, using a small sample of the mother’s blood (nature 2012, 487,320-4. Erratum nature 2012; 489,326). This attractive novel technique has opened up new medical possibilities, but also objective ethical questions. A recent article published in the new england journal of medicine (370; 195-197) discussed this topic.

There is no doubt that this new possibility adds a new level of complexity to medical, family and social decisions resulting from prenatal diagnosis.Brain anoxia

As discussed in the article, information can be obtained on some foetal medical issues with the usual methods, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. With genomic analysis however, information can not only be obtained on possible diseases, but also on types of autosomal recessive diseases (e.G. Tay-sachs disease), or the risk that the future child will develop a disease such as diabetes or some type of cancer in adulthood, especially breast and ovarian cancer in women. Knowing the risks of future diseases can be used for the good of the foetus , if prenatal treatments can be applied, but also against their life if abortion is favoured .

This therefore raises several ethical questions, such as, “should foetal genome studies be routinely offered to everyone?” or “are parents entitled to know their future child’s genetic information?” one criterion that is probably essential to establish the ethicality of these practices, is that they are always used in the best interests of the child.Brain anoxia

Regardless of the legal judgment that abortion deserves in different countries, any action that may induce or facilitate abortion is ethically unacceptable.

In 2012, a technique was developed that enabled the foetal genome to be determined in the first trimester of pregnancy, using a small sample of the mother’s blood (nature 2012, 487,320-4. Erratum nature 2012; 489,326). This attractive novel technique has opened up new medical possibilities, but also objective ethical questions. A recent article published in the new england journal of medicine (370; 195-197) discussed this topic.

There is no doubt that this new possibility adds a new level of complexity to medical, family and social decisions resulting from prenatal diagnosis.Brain anoxia

As discussed in the article, information can be obtained on some foetal medical issues with the usual methods, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. With genomic analysis however, information can not only be obtained on possible diseases, but also on types of autosomal recessive diseases (e.G. Tay-sachs disease), or the risk that the future child will develop a disease such as diabetes or some type of cancer in adulthood, especially breast and ovarian cancer in women. Knowing the risks of future diseases can be used for the good of the foetus, if prenatal treatments can be applied, but also against their life if abortion is favoured.

This therefore raises several ethical questions, such as, “should foetal genome studies be routinely offered to everyone?” or “are parents entitled to know their future child’s genetic information?” one criterion that is probably essential to establish the ethicality of these practices, is that they are always used in the best interests of the child.Brain anoxia

The first part of the in the journals post for june 2017 can be found here. And now, for part two…

Medical humanities

SPECIAL ISSUE: communicating mental health

Introduction: historical contexts to communicating mental health

Rebecca wynter and leonard smith

Contemporary discussions around language, stigma and care in mental health, the messages these elements transmit, and the means through which they have been conveyed, have a long and deep lineage. Recognition and exploration of this lineage can inform how we communicate about mental health going forward, as reflected by the 9 papers which make up this special issue. Our introduction provides some framework for the history of communicating mental health over the past 300 years.Brain anoxia we will show that there have been diverse ways and means of describing, disseminating and discussing mental health, in relation both to therapeutic practices and between practitioners, patients and the public. Communicating about mental health, we argue, has been informed by the desire for positive change, as much as by developments in reporting, legislation and technology. However, while the modes of communication have developed, the issues involved remain essentially the same. Most practitioners have sought to understand and to innovate, though not always with positive results. Some lost sight of patients as people; patients have felt and have been ignored or silenced by doctors and carers.Brain anoxia money has always talked, for without adequate investment services and care have suffered, contributing to the stigma surrounding mental illness. While it is certainly ‘time to talk’ to improve experiences, it is also time to change the language that underpins cultural attitudes towards mental illness, time to listen to people with mental health issues and, crucially, time to hear.

Anthropology and aging (open access)

The social context of collective physical training among chinese elderly: an anthropological case study in a park in beijing

Yeori park

This study analyzes the social context in china where the elderly participate in collective physical training, a cultural activity specific to the country.Brain anoxia for this study, senior citizens aged 60 or above who participated in collective physical training in a park in beijing were observed for five months. Research results found that collective physical training enables formation of social networks providing mutual caring and support. On the other hand, the participants conform to the self-disciplined modern discourse to survive in the post-mao society. They do collective physical training due to their social conditions, such as the poorly established welfare system for the aged, severance pay that is too low to cover medical expenses. Although the participants seem to autonomously choose collective physical training based on their own preferences, the context of chinese society, including hidden government intentions, leads the elderly to participate in training activities.Brain anoxia

Social contract on elderly caregiving in contemporary chile

Carola salazar

This paper explores the definitions of social contract on elderly caregiving among a group of seven chilean aging experts. The data show that for chileans, family remains a strong institution that should provide care of its members, with daughters or daughters-in-law being the preferred person to provide care. Also, age segregation, along with the gradual privatization of services such as health care and the pension system, promotes individuality: this can become a problem for future generations because they are no longer concerned with helping others.

Cross-posted on objective intent

A few news stories over the past week or so—one in the wall street journal about “ neurotech,” one in geek gadget about “ neuroscience wearables,” one in the washington post about baby monitors for measuring an infant’s vital signs, and one in gizmodo about “ vaginal wellness products” marketed on etsy—reminded me how much I enjoy questions of intended use.Brain anoxia as I wrote more about here, intended use is a critical concept in FDA law, in part because a product’s intended use is crucial to determining whether it meets the law’s definition of drug or device within the FDA’s jurisdiction. And, for whatever reason, I have an unabashed and—as far as I can tell—limitless love for thinking through questions about whether, and how, products fall with the definition of a drug or device.

As for the reported neurotech, neuro-wearable, baby monitor, and vaginal wellness products, it seems to me that many of these products may fall within the federal food, drug, and cosmetic act’s (FDCA) definitions of drugs or devices. Why is that?

The FDCA defines drugs and devices as products “intended for use” in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of diseases, or “intended to affect the structure or any function of the body.” and this definition is very broad.Brain anoxia

The “disease” piece of the definition captures things like cancer therapies and artificial heart valves—products that fit comfortably within what many commonly understand to be drugs and devices subject to FDA regulation. But, because implicit claims about addressing disease can also cause a product to fall with the definition of a drug or device, this part of the definition also might capture things like baby monitors marketed as measuring breathing and oxygen levels.

Stockbyte

Research shows that the roots of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) generally start early—most likely in the womb. That’s one more reason, on top of a large number of epidemiological studies, why current claims about the role of vaccines in causing autism can’t be right.Brain anoxia but how early is ASD detectable? It’s a critical question, since early intervention has been shown to help limit the effects of autism. The problem is there’s currently no reliable way to detect ASD until around 18–24 months, when the social deficits and repetitive behaviors associated with the condition begin to appear.

Several months ago, an NIH-funded team offered promising evidence that it may be possible to detect ASD in high-risk 1-year-olds by shifting attention from how kids act to how their brains have grown [1]. Now, new evidence from that same team suggests that neurological signs of ASD might be detectable even earlier.

That evidence comes from a study of children at high risk of ASD, who as babies underwent specialized brain scans while asleep to measure connectivity between different regions of the brain [2].Brain anoxia using a sophisticated computer algorithm to analyze the scans, researchers could predict accurately which infants would receive a diagnosis of ASD 18 months later—and which would not. While the results need to be confirmed in larger groups of babies, these findings suggest that neuroimaging may be a valuable tool for early detection of ASD.

In the new study, researchers enrolled 59 babies who were 6 months old and had an older sibling diagnosed with ASD.

“those who argue that that embryo can be destroyed with impunity will have to prove that this newly created life is not human. And no-one, to the best of our knowledge, has yet been able to do so.” introduction

In order to determine the nature of the human embryo, we need to know its biological, anthropological, philosophical, and even its legal reality.Brain anoxia in our opinion, however, the anthropological, philosophical and legal reality of the embryo — the basis of its human rights — must be built upon its biological reality (see also HERE).

Consequently, one of the most widely debated topics in the field of bioethics is to determine when human life begins, and particularly to define the biological status of the human embryo, particularly the early embryo, i.E. From impregnation of the egg by the sperm until its implantation in the maternal endometrium.

Irrespective of this, though, this need to define when human life begins is also due to the fact that during the early stages of human life — approximately during its first 14 days — this young embryo is subject to extensive and diverse threats that, in many cases, lead to its destruction (see HERE).Brain anoxia

These threats affect embryos created naturally, mainly through the use of drugs or technical procedures used in the control of human fertility that act via an anti-implantation mechanism, especially intrauterine devices (as DIU); this is also the case of drugs used in emergency contraception, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal-based drugs (see HERE), because both act via an anti-implantation mechanism in 50% of cases.

“those who argue that that embryo can be destroyed with impunity will have to prove that this newly created life is not human. And no-one, to the best of our knowledge, has yet been able to do so.” introduction

In order to determine the nature of the human embryo, we need to know its biological, anthropological, philosophical, and even its legal reality.Brain anoxia in our opinion, however, the anthropological, philosophical and legal reality of the embryo — the basis of its human rights — must be built upon its biological reality (see also HERE).

Consequently, one of the most widely debated topics in the field of bioethics is to determine when human life begins, and particularly to define the biological status of the human embryo, particularly the early embryo, i.E. From impregnation of the egg by the sperm until its implantation in the maternal endometrium.

Irrespective of this, though, this need to define when human life begins (see our article is also due to the fact that during the early stages of human life — approximately during its first 14 days — this young embryo is subject to extensive and diverse threats that, in many cases, lead to its destruction (see HERE).Brain anoxia

These threats affect embryos created naturally, mainly through the use of drugs or technical procedures used in the control of human fertility that act via an anti-implantation mechanism, especially intrauterine devices (as DIU); this is also the case of drugs used in emergency contraception, such as levonorgestrel or ulipristal-based drugs (see HERE), because both act via an anti-implantation mechanism in most of the time.

Some authors, as bernat reports in his article, have come to classify brain death unscientifically, illogically, even treating it as a legal fiction

In the november 2014 issue of the american journal of bioethics, see HERE (1), professor james L. Bernat reflects on where the concept of brain death is headed.Brain anoxia the reason for this is the fact that there is still reticence as regards this concept in the public and academic spheres. Professor bernat refers to two recent cases in which the diagnosis of brain death led to clinical-ethical-care problems that emerged in the media and public opinion. One of these is the case of jahi mcmath, a child who suffered severe anoxic encephalopathy, as a result of which she developed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of brain death. Jahi’s parents refused to accept the diagnosis of death and requested that the patient’s treatment is maintained, as they did not consider her dead. The second case is that of marlise muñoz, a pregnant patient, also declared brain dead and whose physicians decided to maintain life support measures (connection to a respirator, and maintenance of other treatments), based on the fact that the survival of the foetus was at stake.Brain anoxia marlise’s family asked that these support measures be withdrawn since marlise was considered clinically and legally dead. Persistence of controversy in brain death criterion

The persistence of controversies in relation to the concept of brain death is striking, although it is over 40 years since the birth of this concept of death of the person, published in the journal of the american medical association (JAMA) in 1968 (2).