Crime and violence healthy people 2020 cerebral anoxia causes

Crime and violence experienced by individuals living in a community is an important public health issue. nanoxia deep silence 4 build People can be exposed to violence in many ways. brain anoxia definition They may be victimized directly, witness violence or property crimes in their community, or hear about crime and violence from other residents. 1

Violence can lead to premature death or cause non-fatal injuries. 2 People who survive violent crime endure physical pain and suffering 3 and may also experience mental distress and reduced quality of life. 3 Repeated exposure to crime and violence may be linked to an increase in negative health outcomes. 4 For example, people who fear crime in their communities may engage in less physical activity. 5 As a result, they may report poorer self-rated physical and mental health. 5 One study found that people who perceive their environment to be less safe from crime may also have higher body mass index scores and higher levels of obesity due to reduced physical activity. 6

Exposure to violence in a community can be experienced at various levels, including victimization, directly witnessing acts of violence, or hearing about events from other community members. hypoxic brain injury recovery stories It can also include property crimes that result in damage to the built environment. 7 Crime rates vary by neighborhood characteristics. Low-income neighborhoods are more likely to be affected by crime and property crime than high-income neighborhoods. 8

Children and adolescents exposed to violence are at risk for poor long-term behavioral and mental health outcomes regardless of whether they are victims, direct witnesses, or hear about the crime. 9 For example, children exposed to violence may experience behavioral problems, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. 10 Children exposed to violence may also show increased signs of aggression starting in upper-elementary school. 11 Children exposed to several types of violence over long periods of time are more likely to experience anxiety, depression, and behavioral problems compared to children with only moderate exposure to violence. 12

The effects of exposure to violence in childhood may be seen in adulthood and can result in greater risk for substance use, risky sexual behavior, and unsafe driving behavior. 13 Individuals exposed to violence at any age are more likely to engage in and experience intimate partner violence. 14 , 15 Women exposed to intimate partner violence have an increased risk of physical health issues such as injuries, and mental health disorders such as disordered eating, depression and suicidal ideation. 16

There are serious short- and long-term health effects from exposure to crime and violence in one’s community. anxieux definition francais Addressing exposure to crime and violence as a public health issue may help prevent and reduce the harms to individual and community health and well-being. Additional research is needed to increase the evidence base for what works to reduce the effects of crime and violence on health outcomes and disparities. This additional evidence will facilitate public health efforts to address crime and violence as a social determinant of health.

Disclaimer: This summary of the literature on crime and violence as a social determinant of health is a narrowly defined review that may not address all dimensions of the issue. i Please keep in mind that the summary is likely to evolve as new evidence emerges or as additional research is conducted.