Chapter 11 notes – documents anoxia refers to

CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFESPAN MAJOR ISSUES AND METHODS

Developmental psychology:

Examines changes in our biological, physical, physiological,and behavioural processes as we age

Four main issues:

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Nature and nurture:

Which one has a greater influence on development?

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Critical and sensitive periods:

Critical period:

An age range during which certain experiences mustoccur for development to proceed normally

Sensitive period:

An optimal age for experiences, but development is still possible if they happen at another time

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Continuity versus discontinuity:

Is development continuous or gradual, or is itdiscontinuous, and take place in stages?


O

Stability versus change:

Do characteristics stay the same or change?-developmental functions change in five ways:1.No change2.Continuous change (continuity)3.Stages (discontinuity)4.Inverted U-shaped function (comes after birth, peaks, then disappears)5.U-shaped function (present in early life, disappears, then comes back)

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Cross-sectional design:

A research design that simultaneously compares ppl of differentages at a particular point in time

Longitudinal design:

Repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older

Sequential design

:

Combines both

Repeatedly test several age cohorts as they growolder and determine whether they follow a similar developmental pattern PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

Prenatal period:

Approximately 266 days which we develop from a single-cell organisminto a human

Three stages:

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Germinal stage:

Week 0-2

Through repeated cell division the

Zygote

Becomes amass of cells that attaches to the uterus after about 10-14 days

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Embryonic stage:

Week 2-8

Cell mass is now an

Embryo.

The placenta andumbilical cord develop (placenta has membranes that allow nutrients to pass, and theumbilical cord has blood vessels that carry these nutrients.Anoxia refers to by week 8 the heart is beating, brain forming, and facial features form

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Fetal stage:

Week 9-birth

Muscles become stronger and bodily systemsdevelop. At 24 weeks the eyes open, and at 28 weeks the fetus is at the

Age of viability:

Would probably survive if born prematurelygenetics and sex determination

23

Rd

Pair of chromosomes determines sex

Women have XX, males have XY

The ychromosome has a gene known the

TDF gene

Which triggers male sexual development-once formed the testes secrete sex hormones called androgens that direct male sex organsenvironmental influences

Maternal malnutrition

Is associated with premature birth, miscarriage, stillbirth, etc

Teratogens:

Environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development

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Rubella:

Can cause blindness, deafness, mental retardation, and heart defects

STDs:

Passed from mother to fetus, may cause brain damage, blindness, deafness, etc

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS):

Severe group of abnormalities that result from prenatalexposure to alcohol

Facial abnormalities, and small malformed brains

Nicotine:

A teratogen, increases risk of miscarriage and premature birth

Babies born to crack heads or heroin addicts are often born addicted INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD newborn sensation and perception-have very poor acuity, a lack of coordinated eye movements, and “tunnel vision”

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Acuity of about 20/800, or 40 times worse than the average adult-minutes after birth will turn to face visual, auditory, and tactile targets, as well as odours-orient to most important stimuli in their environment, usually their mother -newborns look longer at patterned than non-patterned objects

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Newborns have memory

Visual habituation procedure:

Same stimuli presented untilinfant looking time decreases, then a new stimuli is presented. The infant will look at thenew stimuli for longer than the familiar stimulisensory-perceptual development-visual field expands to almost adult size by six months of age-acuity improves in a continuous developmental function to about 20/100 by 6 months,then progresses more slowly until it reaches adult levels by about 4 years-perceive based on gestalt principles

A U-shaped function exists for sound localization – the remarkable ability of newborns toturn toward sounds at birth disappears in second month of life, then returns at 5 monthsphysical, motor, and brain development

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Maturation:

The genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth

Cephalcaudal principle:

Tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction

Proximdistal principle:

States that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues outwards (ie, from shoulders to arms to hands to fingers)-brain at birth is 25% of eventual adult weight, but by 6 months is already at 50%-between 5-10 years little brain growth occurs, but develops more synapses, associationareas of the cerebral cortex mature, and the cerebral hemispheres become specialized

Reflexes:

Automatic inborn behaviours elicited by specific stimuli-some motor skills have a U-shaped developmental pattern:

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The stepping reflex: stops after 1-2 months, then returns at around 12 monthswhen infants begin to try and walk cognitive developmentpiaget’s stage model-children’s thinking changes with age and results from maturation and experience

To understand their world, the brain builds

Schemas

, which are organized patterns of thought and action

Assimilation

: the process where new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas

Accommodation

: process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change-piaget made 4 major stages of cognitive growth:

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Sensorimotor stage:

Birth – 2

Infants understand world through sensoryexperiences and motor interactions w/ objects

Around 8 months, child has

Object permanence

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: the ability tounderstand that an object exists even when it disappears from sight

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Preoperatinal stage:

2 – 7

Represent the world symbolically through wordsand mental images, but do not yet understand basic mental operations or rules

Become capability of thinking about past/future, and can “make-believe”

Don’t understand

Conservation

(stays same when appearance changes)

Animism

: attribute lifelike qualities to objects and natural events

Egocentrism:

Believe everyone perceive things the same way they do

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Concrete operational stage:

7 – 12

Children can perform basic mentaloperations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations

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Formal operational stage:

11 or 12 on

Individuals are able to think logicallyand systematically abut both concrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses, andtest them in a thoughtful wayvygotsky: the social context of cognitive development

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Emphasized children live in a social world and that cognitive development occurs in asocio-cultural context

Adults and older peers stimulate growth and provide knowledge

Zone of proximal development:

Difference between what a child can do independently,and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers

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Helps us recognize functions that are in the process of maturing

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Emphasizes ppl can “move” a child’s development forwardtheory of mind

Theory of mind:

Refers to a person’s beliefs about how the “mind” works, and whatothers are thinking about-according to piaget, children under 6 or 7 have very limited understanding of the mind,and thus cannot infer what others are thinking

anoxia refers to

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Now believed that children have some understanding at about 3 or 4moral development

Freud

Children develop a mental conscience by identifying with parents

Skinner

We learn which behaviours are good and bad through reward/punishment

Piaget

Kids pass from a stage of believing that actions are good or bad b/c adults sayso, to a more complex stage of believing that morality involves personal judgmentkholberg’s stage model

Preconventional moral reasoning:

Based on anticipated punishments/rewards

Stage1, children focus on punishment; stage 2, morality is judged by anticipated rewards

Conventional moral reasoning:

Based on conformity to social expectations

Stage 3,conformity stems from the desire to gain ppl’s approval; stage 4, children believe thatlaws and duties must be obeyed

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Postconventional moral reasoning:

Based on well thought out, general, moral principles

Stage 5 involves recognizing the importance of societal laws, but also takingindividual rights into account; stage 6, morality is based on abstract, ethical principles of justice that are viewed as universalpersonality and social developmenterikson’s psychosocial theory

Believed personality develops through confronting a series of 8 major

Psychosocialstages

, each w/ a different crises over how we view our ourselves and others

Four occur in infancy and childhood

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Trust vs mistrust

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Autonomy vs shame and doubt

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Initiative vs guilt

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Industry vs inferiority

Attachment

Imprinting:

Sudden, biologically primed from of attachment

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Attachment:

The strong emotional bonds that develop between children and caregivers

Contact comfort

: body contact w/ a comforting object is more important in fosteringattachment than the acquisition of nourishment-attachment during infancy develops in 3 phases

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Indiscriminate attachment behaviour:

Cry to anyone for attention

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Discriminate attachment behaviour:

Around 3 months, only cry to familiar ppl

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Specific attachment behaviour:

By 7-9 months, have first attachment to caregiver

Stranger anxiety:

Distress over contact with unfamiliar ppl

Separation anxiety:

Distress over being separated from the primary caregiver

Goal-corrected partnership:

Emerges when children and caregivers describe their wishesand feelings to each other, so the relationship can be maintained whether together or apart

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Securely attached infants:

React positively to strangers in mothers presence, distressedwhen she leaves

Anxious resistant infants:

Fearful when mother is present, demand attention, and arehighly distressed when she leaves, yet resist comfort when she returns

Anxious avoidant infants:

Show few signs of attachment and seldom if she leavesthe daycare controversy-approx 60% of NA children are cared for during the day by someone other than parents-daycare does not seem to disrupt infants’ attachment to parents-infants in daycare are slightly less engaged and sociable toward their mothers, andmothers are slightly less sensitive toward them-poor infants who receive high-quality care tend to be better adjusted socially and perform better in elementary schoolstyles of parenting

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Authoritative parents:

Controlling but warm – establish clear rules, consistently enforcethem, and reward children’s compliance with warmth and affection

Authoritarian parents:

Exert control but do so within a cold, or rejecting relationship

Indulgent parents:

Warm and caring relationships with their children but do not provideguidance and disciple that help children learn responsibility

Neglectful parents:

Provide neither warmth nor rules and guidance adolescencephysical development

Adolescence begins at

Puberty

, a period of rapid maturation in which the person becomescapable of sexual reproduction-the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to increase its hormonal secretions-primary sex characteristics (sex organs) mature, as well as secondary sex characteristics(facial hair for boys, breasts for girls)

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For girls, the pubertal landmark is

Menarche

, the first menstrual flow – for boys it is thefirst ejaculationcognitive development

Enter formal operational stage

More easily contemplate abstract/hypothetical issues

Adolescent egocentrism:

Overestimate the uniqueness of their feelings, which is called

Personal fable,

And feel that they are always “on stage,” called the

Imaginary audience