Atrophy symptoms brain anoxia

Muscular cerebral atrophy

Atrophy is the progressive degeneration or shrinkage of muscle or nerve tissue.

In multiple sclerosis (MS), two types of atrophy are common: muscle atrophy (due

To disuse of specific muscles) and brain or cerebral atrophy (due to demyelination

And destruction of nerve cells).

When a person complains of muscle weakness, the doctor checks muscles for bulk

And texture and for tenderness. Muscles are also checked for twitches and

Involuntary movements, which may indicate a nerve disease rather than a muscle

Disease. Doctors look for wasting away of muscle (atrophy), which can result

From damage to the muscle or its nerves or from lack of use (disuse atrophy), as

Sometimes occurs with prolonged bed rest.Brain anoxia doctors also look for muscle

Enlargement (hypertrophy), which normally occurs with an exercise such as weight

Lifting. However, when a person is ill, hypertrophy may result from one muscle

Working harder to compensate for the weakness of another.

Cerebral atrophy is a common feature of many of the diseases that affect the

Brain. Atrophy of any tissue means loss of cells. In brain tissue, atrophy

Describes a loss of neurons and the connections between them. Atrophy can be

Generalized, which means that all of the brain has shrunk or it can be focal,

Affecting only a limited area of the brain. The result of this type of atrophy

Can be a decrease of function in the affected area of the brain. If the cerebral

brain anoxia

Hemispheres are affected, conscious thought and voluntary processes may be


Cerebral atrophy symptoms:


This is characterized by a progressive impairment of memory and intellectual

Function that is severe enough to interfere with social and work skills. Memory,

Orientation, abstraction, ability to learn, visual-spatial perception, and

Higher executive functions such as planning, organizing, and sequencing may also

Be impaired.


These can take different forms, appearing as disorientation, repetitive

Movements, loss of consciousness, or convulsions.


A group of disorders characterized by disturbances in speaking and understanding

Language. Receptive aphasia causes impaired comprehension.Brain anoxia expressive aphasia is

Reflected in odd choices of words, the use of partial phrases, disjointed

Clauses, and incomplete sentences.

Muscular atrophy

Muscle atrophy is the wasting or loss of muscle tissue. There are two types of

Muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic.

The first type of muscle atrophy is disuse atrophy

And occurs from a lack of physical exercise. In most people, muscle atrophy is

Caused by not using the muscles enough. Those with sedentary jobs, medical

Conditions that limit their movement, or decreased activity levels can lose

Muscle tone and develop atrophy. Those who are bedridden can have significant

Muscle wasting. This type of atrophy can usually be reversed through exercise

And/or better nutrition.Brain anoxia

The second and most severe type of muscle atrophy is

Neurogenic atrophy. This occurs when there’s an injury to, or disease of

A nerve such as with MS. This type of muscle atrophy tends to occur more suddenly

Than disuse atrophy. This type of atrophy can’t usually be reversed since there

Is actual physical damage to the nerve. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation

(NMES) has been used as a form of physical therapy that applies electrical

Muscle stimulation via small electrical impulses to nerves and muscles in an

Effort to cause involuntary muscle contractions. The electrical impulses are

Sent by electrodes placed on your skin over the muscle or muscles.

Although people can adapt to muscle atrophy, even minor muscle atrophy causes

brain anoxia

Some loss of movement or strength. Symptoms of muscle atrophy may include:

Balance problems, difficulty walking, and falls

Difficulty with speaking and swallowing

Facial weakness

Gradual memory loss

Impaired balance and coordination

Loss of muscle coordination

Numbness or tingling in arms or legs

Progressive loss of movement

Progressive weakness and numbness in the legs

Cerebral atrophy

The loss of brain tissue, called brain atrophy, is a normal part of aging,

But MS accelerates the process. Such atrophy is a critical indicator of

Physical and cognitive decline in MS, yet because measuring brain atrophy

Is expensive and complicated, it’s done primarily in research settings.

The biological basis of gray matter atrophy in MS is not well understood, but

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Gray matter damage seems to be the most critical factor leading to permanent

Disability. Until now, it was thought that the lesions or plaques observed in

The white matter were the cause of the damage to the brain. New data indicates

That these lesions account for only 30% of the atrophy in the gray matter; other

Unexplained neurodegenerative mechanisms are therefore also implicated.

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Principal cause is unknown

MS is a chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system

(CNS) that affects the brain and spinal cord. It’s the most common chronic neurologic

brain anoxia

Disease in young people and adults in europe and affects approximately 2.5 million

People throughout the world. The study was published in the journal

Archives of neurology (66(2):173-9) and was carried

Out by the team of dr. Pablo villoslada at the university of navarre. Last december, these

Researchers joined hospital clínic, barcelona-IDIBAPS. Until now, it was thought that the

Atrophy seen in the brains of patients with MS was caused by the plaque in the white matter.

The new results show that these plaques explain only 30% of the lesions.

Until now it was assumed that MS predominantly affected myelin, a fat that sheaths the

Nerves. It was thought that the plaques that form in the myelin were directly responsible

brain anoxia

For the atrophy of the grey matter. This study was designed to determine whether the

Loss of volume–atrophy–in the brain’s structures was related to the presence of lesions

Or cuts in the nerves connected to them.

The researchers analyzed the brains of 81 people (61 with MS and 20 healthy people) using

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a morphometric method (volumetry). The study focused

On the optical pathway, starting with the hypothesis that lesions in this part of the

Brain, and in no other, correlate with atrophy of the occipital cortex and the lateral

Geniculate nucleus (LGN), the main centers for processing visual information. The results

Indicate that the lesions in the white matter of the nerves originating in the LGN explain

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Up to 28% of the variation in volume. Atrophy of the occipital cortex did not correspond

To the presence of lesions in the optical pathway, probably because it is associated with

Many other pathways.

Thus, although the sclerotic plaques in the nerves contribute significantly to the atrophy

Of the grey matter, the remaining 72% must still be explained. The data suggest that other

Neurodegenerative processes are involved. Because atrophy of the grey matter is the main

Cause of the progressive form of the disease and its severe sequelae, it’s important to

Gain a better understanding of the principal mechanism of the damage, apart from the classic

Plaques, in order to be able to apply this knowledge to treating the disease.Brain anoxia cerebral atrophy and depression

A recent study reported on the

UCLA newsroom, looks at brain atrophy as a cause

Of depression for those with MS. Adding to all that ails people managing their

MS is depression ― for which MS sufferers have a lifetime risk as high as 50%.

Yet despite its prevalence, the cause of this depression is not understood. It’s

Not related to how severe one’s MS is, and it can occur at any stage of the

Disease. That suggests it’s not simply a psychological reaction that comes from

Dealing with the burden of a serious neurologic disorder.

Now, in the first such study in living humans, researchers at UCLA suggest a

Cause, and it’s not psychological, but physical: atrophy of a specific region of

brain anoxia

The hippocampus, a critical part of the brain involved in mood and memory, among

Other functions.

Reporting in the early online edition of the journal biological psychiatry,

Senior study author dr. Nancy sicotte, a UCLA associate professor of neurology,

Stefan gold, lead author and a postdoctoral fellow in the

UCLA multiple sclerosis program, and colleagues

Used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify three key

Sub-regions of the hippocampus that were found to be smaller in people with MS

When compared with the brains of healthy individuals.

The researchers also found a relationship between this atrophy and hyperactivity

Of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a complex set of interactions

brain anoxia

Among three glands. The HPA axis is part of the neuroendocrine system that

Controls reactions to stress and regulates many physiological processes. It’s

Thought that this dysregulation may play a role in the atrophy of the

Hippocampus and the development of depression.

Depression is one of the most common symptoms in patients with multiple

Sclerosis, gold said. It impacts cognitive function, quality of life, work

Performance and treatment compliance. Worst of all, it’s also one of the

Strongest predictors of suicide.

The researchers examined three sub-regions of the hippocampus. They imaged 29

Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and compared them with 20 healthy

Control subjects who did not have MS.Brain anoxia they also measured participants’ cortisol

Level three times a day; cortisol is a major stress hormone produced by the HPA

Axis that affects many tissues in the body, including the brain.

In addition to the difference between MS patients and healthy controls, the

Researchers found that the MS patients diagnosed with depression showed a smaller

CA23DG sub-region of the hippocampus, along with excessive release of cortisol

From the HPA axis.

Interestingly, this idea of a link between excessive activity of the HPA axis

And reduced brain volume in the hippocampus hasn’t received a lot of attention,

Despite the fact that the most consistently reproduced findings in psychiatric

Patients with depression (but without MS) include hyperactivity of the HPA axis

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And smaller volumes of the hippocampus, sicotte said.

So the next step is to compare MS patients with depression to psychiatric

Patients with depression to see how the disease progresses in each, she said.