Assessment and management of patients with hepatic disorders – ppt download brain anoxia

1 assessment and management of patients with hepatic disorders

2 anatomy and physiology of the liver

Largest gland of the body located in the upper right abdomen A very vascular organ that receives blood from the GI tract via the portal vein and from the hepatic artery

3 liver and biliary system

4 section of a liver lobule

5 metabolic functions glucose metabolism ammonia conversion

Protein metabolism vitamin and iron storage drug metabolism bile formation bilirubin excretion

6 liver function studies

Serum aminotransferases: AST, ALT, GGT, GGTP, LDH serum protein studies pigment studies: direct and indirect serum bilirubin, urine bilirubin, and urine bilirubin and urobilinogen prothrombin time serum alkaline phosphatase serum ammonia cholesterol

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7 additional diagnostic studies

Liver biopsy ultrasonography CT MRI other

8 hepatic dysfunction acute or chronic (more common) causes:

Cirrhosis of the liver causes: most common cause is malnutrition related to alcoholism. Infection anoxia metabolic disorders nutritional deficiencies hypersensitivity states

9 manifestations jaundice portal hypertension, ascites, and varices

Hepatic encephalopathy or coma nutritional deficiencies hematologic problems endocrine problems

10 jaundice yellow- or green-tinged body tissues, sclera, and skin due to increased serum bilirubin levels (2.5 mg/dl) types hemolytic hepatocellular obstructive hereditary hyperbilirubinemia hepatocellular and obstructive jaundice types are most associated with liver disease.Brain anoxia

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12 signs and symptoms associated with hepatocellular and obstructive jaundice

Patient may appear mildly or severely ill. Lack of appetite, nausea, weight loss malaise, fatigue, weakness headache, chills, and fever if infectious in origin obstructive dark orange-brown urine and light clay-colored stools dyspepsia and intolerance of fats, impaired digestion pruritus

13 portal hypertension obstructed blood flow through the liver results in increased pressure throughout the portal venous system. Results in: ascites fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity increased abdominal girth and weight gain esophageal varices and gastric varices varicosities that develop from elevated pressures in the veins, prone to rupture development of other collateral circulation systemic hypertension

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14 ascites – fluid in peritoneal cavity due to:

Portal hypertension resulting in increased capillary pressure and obstruction of venous blood flow vasodilation of splanchnic circulation (blood flow to the major abdominal organs) changes in the ability to metabolize aldosterone, increasing fluid retention decreased synthesis of albumin, decreasing serum osmotic pressure movement of albumin into the peritoneal cavity

15 pathogenesis of ascites

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17 assessment of ascites record abdominal girth and weight daily.

Paient may have striae, distended veins, and umbilical hernia. Assess for fluid in abdominal cavity by percussion for shifting dullness or by fluid wave. Monitor for potential fluid and electrolyte imbalances dehydration hypokalemia hyponatremia monitor for signs of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

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18 treatment of ascites low-sodium diet diuretics bed rest paracentesis

Administration of salt-poor albumin transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

19 paracentesis

20 TIPS

21 hepatic encephalopathy and coma

A life-threatening complication of liver disease. May result from the accumulation of ammonia and other toxic metabolites in the blood. Stages 1, 2, 3, 4: see table 44-13 assessment EEG changes in level of consciousness; assess neurologic status frequently potential seizures fetor hepaticus asterixis monitor fluid, electrolyte, and ammonia levels

22 asterixis

23 effects of constructional apraxia

24 medical management eliminate precipitating cause.

Lactulose to reduce serum ammonia levels IV glucose to minimize protein catabolism protein restriction 1-1.5 g/kg daily, or less if acute small , frequent meals vegetable protein over animal protein when possible reduction of ammonia from GI tract by gastric suction, enemas, oral antibiotics discontinue sedatives, analgesics, and tranquilizers.Brain anoxia monitor for and promptly treat complications and infections.

25 bleeding of esophageal varices

Occurs in about 1/3 of patients with cirrhosis and varices first bleeding episode has a mortality of 30-50%. Manifestations include hematemesis, melena, general deterioration, and shock. Patients with cirrhosis should undergo screening endoscopy every 2 years.

26 pathogenesis of bleeding esophageal varices

27 treatment of bleeding varices

Treatment of shock airway/oxygen IV fluids, electrolytes, and volume expanders blood and blood products vasopressin, somatostatin, octreotide to decease bleeding nitroglycerin may be used in combination with vasopressin to reduce coronary vasoconstriction. Propranolol and nadolol to decrease portal pressure; used in combination with other treatment

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28 balloon tamponade: sengstaken-blakemore tube

29 endoscopic sclerotherapy

30 esophageal banding

31 nursing management of the patient with bleeding esophageal varices

Close monitoring of vital signs monitor patient’s condition frequently, including emotional responses and cognitive status. Monitor for associated complications such as hepatic encephalopathy resulting from blood breakdown in the GI tract and delirium related to alcohol withdrawal. Monitor treatments, including tube care and GI suction. Saline lavage as ordered oral care quiet, calm environment and reassuring manner implement measures to reduce anxiety and agitation. Teaching and support of patient and family

32 hepatitis (see table 44-2)

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Viral hepatitis: a systemic viral infection that causes necrosis and inflammation of liver cells with characteristic symptoms and cellular and biochemical changes A B C D E nonviral hepatitis: toxin- and drug-induced

33 hepatitis A (HAV) fecal-oral transmission

Spread primarily by poor hygiene; hand-to-mouth contact, close contact, or through food and fluids incubation: days illness may last 4-8 weeks. Mortality is 0.5% for younger than age 40 and 1-2% for those over age 40. Manifestations: mild flu-like symptoms, low-grade fever, anorexia, later jaundice and dark urine, indigestion and epigastric distress, enlargement of liver and spleen anti-HAV antibody in serum after symptoms appear

34 management prevention bed rest during acute stage nutritional support

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Good handwashing, safe water, and proper sewage disposal vaccine immunoglobulin for contacts to provide passive immunity bed rest during acute stage nutritional support

35 hepatitis B (HBV) transmitted through blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, sexually transmitted, transmitted to infant at the time of birth A major worldwide cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer risk factors: high risk sexual behavior, IV drug use, healthcare worker, dialysis patient, tattoos/piercings with contaminated needles long incubation period: 1-6 months about 10% will become chronic carriers manifestations: insidious and variable, similar to hepatitis A the virus has antigenic particles that elicit specific antibody markers during different stages of the disease

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36 management prevention bed rest (acute) nutritional support

Vaccine: for persons at high risk, routine vaccination of infants standard precautions/infection control measures screening of blood and blood products avoidance of high risk sexual practices bed rest (acute) nutritional support medications for chronic hepatitis type B include alpha interferon and antiviral agents: lamivudine (epivir), adefovir (hepsera) – reduce viral load, improve liver function, slow progression to cirrhosis

37 hepatitis C transmitted by blood, including needlesticks and sharing of needles; less commonly, sexual contact A cause of 1/3 of cases of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplant risk factors similar to hepatitis B incubation period is variable ( days) symptoms are usually mild, possibly asymptomatic chronic carrier state frequently occurs.Brain anoxia increases risk of liver cancer and cirrhosis

38 management prevention screening of blood

Prevention of needlesticks (2% chance for seroconversion) for health care workers measures to reduce spread of infection as with hepatitis B alcohol encourages the progression of the disease, so alcohol and medications that affect the liver should be avoided. Antiviral agents: interferon and ribavirin may result in full remission; pt response to therapy is variable based on genotype and compliance

39 hepatitis D and E hepatitis D hepatitis E

Only persons with hepatitis B are at risk for hepatitis D. Transmission is through blood and sexual contact. Symptoms and treatment are similar to hepatitis B, but patient is more likely to develop fulminant liver failure and chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis.Brain anoxia hepatitis E transmitted by fecal-oral route incubation period days resembles hepatitis A and is self-limited, with an abrupt onset. No chronic form.

40 other liver disorders nonviral hepatitis fulminant hepatic failure

Toxic hepatitis resembles viral hepatitis, due to exposure to toxic agents drug-induced hepatitis medication induced; leading cause acetaminophen fulminant hepatic failure clinical syndrome of sudden and severely impaired liver function in a previously healthy person prognosis much worse than chronic liver failure rapid development of jaundice, coagulation defects, renal failure, lyte imbalance, CV abnormalities, infection, hypoglycemia, encephalopathy, cerebral edema requires rapid recognition and treatment

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41 nursing process: the care of the patient with cirrhosis of the liver: assessment

Focus on onset of symptoms and history of precipitating factors. Alcohol use/abuse dietary intake and nutritional status exposure to toxic agents and drugs assess mental status. Abilities to carry out ADL, maintain a job, and maintain social relationships monitor for signs and symptoms related to the disease, including indicators for bleeding, fluid volume changes, and lab data.

42 nursing process: the care of the patient with cirrhosis of the liver: diagnosis

Activity intolerance imbalanced nutrition impaired skin integrity risk for injury and bleeding

43 collaborative problems/potential complications

Bleeding and hemorrhage hepatic encephalopathy fluid volume excess

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44 nursing process: the care of the patient with cirrhosis of the liver: planning

Goals may include increased participation in activities, improvement of nutritional status, improvement of skin integrity, decreased potential for injury, improvement of mental status, and absence of complications.

45 activity intolerance rest and supportive measures

Positioning for respiratory efficiency oxygen planned mild exercise and rest periods address nutritional status to improve strength. Measures to prevent hazards of immobility

46 imbalanced nutrition IO vitamin supplementation (A, C, K, folic acid)

Encourage patient to eat. Small, frequent meals may be better tolerated. Consider patient preferences. Supplemental vitamins and minerals, especially B complex; provide water-soluble forms of fat-soluble vitamins if patient has steatorrhea high-calorie diet, sodium restriction for ascites protein is modified to patient needs.Brain anoxia protein is restricted if patient is at risk for encephalopathy.

47 other interventions impaired skin integrity risk for injury

Frequent position changes gentle skin care measures to reduce scratching by the patient risk for injury measures to prevent falls measures to prevent trauma related to risk for bleeding careful evaluation of any injury related to potential for bleeding

48 cancer of the liver primary liver tumors liver metastasis

Few cancers originate in the liver. Usually associated with hepatitis B and C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) liver metastasis liver is a frequent site of metastatic cancer. Manifestations pain, dull continuous ache in RUQ, epigastrium, or back weight loss, loss of strength, anorexia, anemia may occur.Brain anoxia jaundice if bile ducts occluded, ascites if obstructed portal veins

49 nonsurgical management of liver cancer

Underlying cirrhosis, which is prevalent in patients with liver cancer, increases risks of surgery. Major effect of nonsurgical therapy may be palliative. Radiation therapy chemotherapy percutaneous biliary drainage other nonsurgical treatments

50 surgical management of liver cancer

Treatment of choice for HCC if confined to one lobe and liver function is adequate liver has regenerative capacity. Types of surgery lobectomy cryosurgery liver transplant

51 liver transplant