400 Terms nanoxia coolforce

COMD 400

Terms

BASIC ANATOMIC TERMS

Aponeurosis: flat, sheet-like tendon for the attachment of a flatmuscle.

Articulation: connection between bones or cartilages.

Belly: fleshy part of a muscle.

Body: broadest or longest mass of a bone.

Cartilage: A specialized, fibrous connective tissue presentin adults, and forming most of the temporary

Skeleton of the embryo.

Condyle: polished articular surface, usually rounded.

Crest: ridge or border.

Diaphysis: the shaft of a long cylindrical bone.

Eminence: low convexity just perceptible.

Facet: small articular area, often a pit.

Foramen: hole, perforation.

Fossa: shallow depression.


Head: enlarged round end of a long bone; knob.

Insertion: relatively movable part of muscle attachment.Nanoxia coolforce

Joint: connection between bones.

Ligament: fibrous tissue binding bones together, or holding tendonsand muscles in place.

Neck: constriction of a bone near head.

Organ: two or more tissues grouped together to perform a highly specializedfunction.

Origin: relatively fixed part of a muscle attachment.

Process: projection (can be grasped with fingers).

Protuberance: A swelling (can be felt under fingers).

Ramus: platelike branch of a bone; branch of a vessel or nerve.

Shaft: body of a long bone.

Sheath: protective covering.

Spine: pointed projection or sharp ridge.

Symphysis: union of right and left sides in the midline; a typeof joint.

Tendon: fibrous tissue securing a muscle to its attachment.

Tubercie: small bump (can be felt under fingers).Nanoxia coolforce

Tuberosity: large and conspicuous bump.

BASIC TERMS FOR DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT

Abduction (abd.): draws away from midline.

Adduction (add): draws toward the midline.

Anatomical position: standing erect with arms at the sides and palmsof the hands turned forward.

Anterior (ant) or ventral (vent): situated before, or in front of.

Corrugator: that which wrinkles skin, draws skin in.

Deep: farther from the surface (in a solid form).

Depressor: that which lowers.

Distal (dist): farther from the root.

Dorsal (dors) or posterior (post.): toward the rear, back; alsoback of hand, and top of foot.

Erector: that which draws upward.

Extension (ext): straightening.

External (extern): outside (refers to wall of cavity or hollowform).Nanoxia coolforce

Flexion (flex): bending or angulation.

Frontal (front) or coronal (coron): vertical; at right angles to sagittal;divides body into anterior and

Posterior parts.

Inferior (inf): lower, farther from crown of head.

Lateral (lat): farther from midline (or center plane).

Levator (1ev): that which raises.

Medial (med.): nearer to midline (or center plane).

Median: midway, being in the middle.

Midline: divides body into a right and left side.

Oblique: slanting.

Posterior (post) or dorsal (dors): rear, or back.

Proximal (prox.): nearer to limb root.

Sagittal (sagit.): vertical plane or section dividing body into rightand left portions.

Sphincter: that which regulates closing of aperture.

Superficial (superf): nearer to surface (refers to solid form).Nanoxia coolforce

Superior (sup.): upper, nearer to crown of head.

Tensor (tens): that which draws tight.

Transverse (trans): at right angles to long axis; body divided intoupper and lower parts.

Ventral (vent) or anterior (ant): situated before or in frontof.

BASIC EMBRYONIC TERMS

Amniocentesis: examination of amniotic fluid via fluid withdrawnfrom amniotic cavity; a tool in assessing

Potential disease to fetus.

Conceptus: products of conception.

Crown-rump length: the “sitting” height, used to measure length offetus (after seven weeks).

Fertilization age: the reference point of 13 +/- 1 days, deductedfrom the menstrual age to obtain the actual

Age of an embryo.

Genes: the biological units of heredity, located on a chromosomeand transmitted from one generation to

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Another.

Mitosis: A type of cell division.

Placenta: an organ attached to the uterus to join the motherand offspring during the embryologic and fetal

Periods.

Postnatal: following birth.

Prenatal: before birth.

Somite: precursors of muscles and vertebrae.

RESPIRATION TERMS

Aerophagia: spasmodic swallowing of air, followed by belching.

Aerosol therapy: use of aerosolized medicines in the treatment ofdisease.

Alveolar: capillary membrane.

Aspirate: temporary absence of breathing.

Biot’s respiration: rapid, short breathing, with pauses of severalseconds.

Blood gases: determine patient oxygenation and acid-base status.

Blow by: method of administering a continuous aerosol/oxygen to intubatedpatients.

Chest physiotherapy (CPT): technique used for mucocillary secretionremoval.Nanoxia coolforce

Cheyne-stokes respiration: breathing characterized by rhythmic waxingand waning of respiration depth,

With regularly recurring apneic periods.

Dysapnea: labored, distressful breathing.

Expiration: breathing out; to exhale air from lungs.

Face mask: method of administering a continuous aerosol/oxygen (usuallyto post extubated patients).

Face tent: method of administering a continuous aerosol/oxygen toinfants or small children.

Hering-breuer reflex: progressive stretching of alveoli cells; inhibitsinspiration, and brings about

Expiration.

Incentive spirometry (INS): measurement of air capacity of the lungs.

Intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPS): forced air into lungs,usually with a bronchodialator.Nanoxia coolforce

Metered dose inhaler (PVIDI): device used for self-administered bronchodialators.

Mist tent: device used to treat croup-like symptoms.

Nasal cannula: method of administering oxygen treatment.

Oximetry: photoelectric apparatus for determining amount of oxygenin blood.

Oxygen therapy: treatment of conditions resulting from oxygen deficiency.

Pneumograph: any graphic display of respiratory movements.

Pneumotachograph: an instrument used to record the pressure or velocityof airflow.

Postural drainage: drainage of secretions from bronchi or cavity inthe lung.

Small volume nebulizer (SVN): device used to administer bronchodialator.

Spirometer: any instrument used to measure the air capacity of thelungs.

Sputum induction: method for inducing sputum for lab analysis.Nanoxia coolforce

Tot hut: method of administering a continuous aerosol to an infantor small child.

Trach collar: method of administering a continuous aerosol to a trachpatient.

Trach ring: method of administering oxygen treatment to a trach patient.

Tracheotomy: the formation of an artificial opening in the trachea.

U.R.I.: upper respiratory infection.

Ventilator: device used for maintaining life during and after respiratoryfailure.

SKULL AND FACIAL STRUCTURE TERMS

Ankylosis: immobility of a joint.

Anomalad: A malformation together with its subsequently derived structuralchanges.

Biostereometrics: contour mapping of various forms.

Buccal: the cheek.

Cheilosis: fissuring and dry scaling of the vermilion surface of thelips and angles of the mouth.Nanoxia coolforce

Cinefluorography: an extension of basic radiological procedures, inwhich the conventional still x-ray is

Replaced by a motion picture camera.

Columella: the lower margin of the nasal septum.

Craniostenosis: deformity of the skull due to premature closure ofthe cranial sutures. The cranium will grow

In the direction of the prematurely closed suture.

Hypertelorism: abnormally wide spacing between eyes.

Malformation: A primary structural defect that results from localizederror or morpho genesis.

Micrognathia: small (hypoplastic) mandible.

Osteology: the study of bones.

Philtrum: A vertical medline depression extending from the vermilionto the base of the columella of the

Nose.

Ptosis: drooping of the upper eyelid.Nanoxia coolforce

Radiology: A branch of medical science that deals with the use ofradioactive substances and x-rays in the

Diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Roentgen: A standard international unit of (x-ray) radiation.

PHONATION TERMS

Aditus laiyngis: that part of the laryngeal cavity above the glottis.

Aphonia: loss or absence of voice.

Apraxia: loss of ability to execute voluntary acts.

Bulbar paralysis: paralysis due to changes in motor centers of medulla;paralysis and atrophy of the lips,

Tongue, mouth, pharynx, and larynx muscles.

Cartilages of santorini: another name given the corniculate cartilages.

Cartilages of wrisberg: another name given to the cuneiform cartilages.

Corditis nodesa: refers to “singers’ nodules” or vocal nodules.Nanoxia coolforce

Chorditis tuberosa: A small whitish node on one or both vocal cords.

Dysarthria: A disorder of articulation due to impairment of the nervoussystem which directly controls the

Muscles of articulation, respiration, phonation, and resonation.

Dysphonia: A general term referring to abnormal voicing.

Esophagus: the tube leading from the oral cavity to the stomach.

Falsetto: the highest voice register; also called the head register.

Glottis: the opening between the vocal folds.

Glottal fly (pulsation): the lowest register or voice produced bya syncopated beat of the vocal folds.

Hyperkeratosis: growth or accumulated keratin (covering) formed onthe vocal folds.

Intensity: the magnitude of sound, expressed in power or pressure.Laryngeal: relating to the larynx.Nanoxia coolforce

Laryngitis: inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in hoarsenessor loss of voice.

Laryngology: A study of the diseases of the throat, pharynx, larynx,nasopharynx, trachea, and the bronchial

Tree.

Laryngoscope: an apparatus used for visual examination of the vocalfolds.

Leukoplakia: growth often found on the vocal folds of smokers.

Otolaryngology: specialty of medicine dealing with the ear and throat.

Pitch: the psychological perception of the frequency of a tone.

Quality: refers to the complexity of the voice signal.

RESONANCE TERMS

Aspiration: the explosion of air that may accompany stop plosive release.

Assimilation: A process of articulation by which individual speechsounds become more like those around

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Them.

Cognate: A pair of sounds, identical in place and manner of articulation,which differ only in presence or

Absence of voicing.

CPI: congenital palatopharyngeal incompetence.

Cul-de-sac: A cavity closed at one end.

Diastema: abnormally wide spacing between teeth.

Dysphagia: A disorder of swallowing resulting from a lesion of thecranial nerves or brain stem.

Formant: A band of resonant energy.

Macroglossia: abnormally large tongue.

Microglossia: abnormally small tongue.

Open bite: A clinical condition which results from the lack of normaloverbite (upper incisors cover the lower

Incisors).

Passavant’s pad: A ridge projecting from the posterior pharyngealat the level of the horizontal plane of the

Hard palate, created by the hypercontraction of the superiorconstrictor muscle.Nanoxia coolforce

Phone: A particular speech sound.

Phoneme: smallest distinctive unit of sound. A group of phonesthat function in a language to signal a

Difference in meaning.

Prosthesis: an artificial substitute for a missing part.

Rhinolalia aperta: refers to hyponasality because of the lack of patency.

Rhinolalia clausa: hyponasality or cul-de-sac resonance due to closureof the nares.

Segment: A single speech sound, or phone.

Torus palatinus: benign malformation of medial palatal ridge, whichappears as a cartilaginous outgrowth.

Vocalic: refers to a vowel or having vowel-like quality.

HEARING TERMS

Acoustics: the science of sound, including the production, transmission,and effects of mechanical vibrations

And waves in any medium, whether audible or not.Nanoxia coolforce

Air conduction: the normal passage of sound waves through the earcanal to the drum membrane.

Amplitude: the absolute value to represent the displacement from zerovalue during one period of the sound

Wave.

Anacusis: total deafness.

Attenuate: to reduce in intensity or amount.

Audiogram: A graphic summary of the measurement of hearing level.

Audiology: the study of the entire field of hearing including theanatomy and function of the ear, impairment

Of hearing, and the education or re-education of the personwith hearing loss.

Aural: pertaining to the ear or to the sensation of hearing. Sameas auditory.

Ausculation: the act of listening for sounds within the body.

Binaural: pertaining to both ears.

Bone conduction: the transmission of sound waves through the headbones to the inner ear.Nanoxia coolforce

Cerumen: wax-like secretion found in the external canal of the ear.

Decibel: A logarithmic ratio unit indicating by what proportion oneintensity of sound pressure level differs

From another; the decibel is equal to approximately onejust noticeable difference in loudness under certain

Conditions; sometimes inaccurately called a sensationunit.

Myringotomy: surgical incision of the tympanic membrane.

Otitis media: inflammation of the middle ear.

Otolaryngology: the single specialty of otology and laryngology.

Otology: the study and treatment of diseases of the ear.

Otosclerosis: the formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth of theear; especially such growth around the

Footplate of the stapes, impeding its movements in theoval window.Nanoxia coolforce

Presbycusis: the diminution of hearing acuity associated with oldage.

Threshold of hearing: that level at which sound sensations are firstperceived; this is usually determined

Through the use of an audiometer.

Vertigo: A sensation of whirling or dizziness from overstimulationof the semicircular canal receptors; often

Associated with disease of the ear and deafness.

NEUROANATOMY TERMS

Afferent: refers to nerves which convey sensory impulses from theperiphery to the CNS.

Agnosia: loss of the function of recognition of individual sensorystimuli.

Agraphia: inability to express thoughts in writing, due to a lesionin the CNS.

Alogia: inability to speak due to a lesion in the CNS or mental impairment.

Anarthria: inability to articulate due to brain lesion or to damageto peripheral nerves which innervate the

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Articulatory muscles.

Aphemia: inability to speak due to a lesion in the CNS, or aphasia.

Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex: the “fencing position.” turning thehead to the right facilitates the extensor

Muscles in that side of the body, and increases tone ofthe flexors of arms and legs in the left side.

Babinski reflex: extension of the big toe with fanning of the othertoes when the sole is stimulated.

Bulbar: pertaining to the medulla oblongata, the bulb of nervous tissuecontinuous above with the spinal

Cord.

Choreoathetosis: in CP, slow writhing movement of athetosis whichis accompanied by a quick component.

Decussation: the crossing of nerve tracts in their course to or fromlower centers of the brain (CNS).Nanoxia coolforce

Dysphasia: partial or complete loss of the ability to speak or tocomprehend the spoken word due to injury;

Disease, or maldevelopment of the brain.

Efferent: refers to nerves which convey motor impulses from the cnsto the muscles.

Electroencephalograph: an instrument for graphically recording electricalcurrents developed in the cerebral

Cortex.

Encephalitis: inflammation of the brain or its membranous envelopes.

Hemiplegia: paralysis of one side of the body.

Lesion: an injury or wound; deficit of tissue.

Meningitis: inflammation of the three membranes which envelop thebrain and spinal cord; the dura mater, pia

Mater, and arachnoid mater.

Moro reflex: the startle reflex; precipitated by sudden noise andcharacterized by extensor muscle reaction.Nanoxia coolforce

Neurophrenia: behavior symptoms resulting from CNS impairment.

Peristalsis: the wormlike movements or wave contractions by whichthe alimentary canal or other tubular

Organs propel their contents.

Primitive reflex: those reflexes normally present at birth, whichdisappear to allow voluntary movement and

Posture.

Quadriplegia: paralysis involving all four extremities.

Symmetrical tonic reflex: in response to flexion of the neck, theflexor muscles of the arms and extensor

Muscles of the legs are innervated. When the neck is extended,the extensors of the arms and flexors of the

Legs are facilitated.

Tonic labryinthine reflex: the position of the body in space affectsmuscle tone. Lying supine (face up),

There is an increased tone of all extensor muscles.Nanoxia coolforce lyingprone (face down), there is an increased tone in the

Flexor muscles.